Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx)

A ramet is an individual plant belonging to a clone. The botanical term for a sucker is ramet.   The clone originates from one ortet.  An ortet is the original or mother plant.  A clonal colony is also referred to as a genet.  A genet is the group of genetically identical individuals, such as plants, fungi, or bacteria, that have grown in a given location, all originating vegetatively, not sexually, from a single ancestor.  In plants, an individual in such a population is referred to as a ramet.  All plants (ramets) reproduced asexually from a common ancestor (ortet) and have identical genotypes which means it is an exact clone or perfect copy of the original ortet. A genotype is the genetic constitution of an individual organism.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx)
The Trembling Aspen May 25, 2019

Tomáš Herben of the Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University and at the Institute of Botany, Czech Academy of Science relates rhizomes to clonal growth.  Rhizome is from both Latin and Greek root rhizoma meaning “mass of tree roots”, and from the root rhizoun meaning “cause to strike root, root into the ground” and from the Green rhiz meaning “root” and -ome.  In botany, rhizome is a horizontal, underground plant stem which is able to produce the shoot and root systems of a new plant.  Duana A. Pelzer, also states that “Aspen (Populus tremuloides) dominates the southern treeline in western Canada, has long‐lived below ground connections between mother and daughter ramets, and reproduces vegetatively via resprouting rhizomes.”  The Trembling Aspen clone can be called rhizomatous.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) May 25, 2019
The Trembling Aspen  May 25, 2019

Scientists, foresters or gardeners can practice vegetative propagation using rooted cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture.  In the case of the Trembling Aspen, the original plant is also called the ortet.

The Trembling Aspen root suckers are produced from meristems featured in the cork cambium of the root systems.   The Cambium is a layer of tissue between the wood and the bark from the Latin cambium meaning “exchange” and Latin cambiare “change.  The cork cambrium, also called a phellogen, produces an outer protective barrier or corky tissue, and an inner phelloderm- a thin, food conducting vascular tissue.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) May 25, 2019
The Trembling Aspen tree bark May 25, 2019

The roots twist, coil and undulate underground.  Growing sideways, laterally,  they do not reach lower than 40 cm (16 inches) below the surface of the soil and most often stay within  2 to 10 cm (1 to 4 in) from the soil surface.

A meristem is a collection of cells forming plant tissue in the zones where plant growth can take place.  These undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells) have the capability for cell division, promoting growth and change. Meristem comes from the Greek root “merizein” which means “to divide” which is the main function of the merismatic cells, to change and divide thus providing new growth for the tree.  Differentiated plant cells cannot produce new growth, as they cannot change.

The shoots develop following apical dominance.  Apical dominance occurs when the shoot apex inhibits the growth of lateral buds so that the plant may grow vertically upwards towards the light. These shoots however, lie in wait, remaining dormant due to hormones called “Auxin” expressed by the main Trembling Aspen clone.  High soil temperature, depletion of carbohydrate  food sources, or excess soil moisture may inhibit the formation of suckers.  If the Aspen Grove is disturbed, the hormonal balance is upset within the Trembling Aspen grove.  There is a decrease in Auxin allowing meristem to develop into buds, then into shoots above ground, finally developing fully producing ramets which can be visibly seen above ground as part of the Trembling Aspen grove.  Suckers originate after disturbances such as clearcutting, girdling, tree defoliation or fire.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) May 25, 2019
The Trembling Aspen Dioecious Catkin or Ament May 25, 2019

When the suckers start to form, the parent root changes.  The suckering rhizomatous root system has four parts:

  1. The root collar, stump or root cap
  2. The distal parent root
  3. The proximal parent root
  4. The adventitious roots

The root collar is the underground area of the Trembling Aspen sucker where it adjoins the stem.  This root collar is the protective layer, so that apical meristem (upward changing new growth) is not affected by rocks, dirt or pathogens (germs.)  The sucker roots and the parent roots cannot be distinguished from each other at the root collar, root cap or stump.

The distal parent root grows quite large to accommodate the new sucker formation.  The distal parent root fills with juicy sap, and is quite succulent and tender. Distal means situated on the outside edge away from the point of attachment to the parent.

The proximal root which is on the close side of the root collar, or stump formation.  Proximal means to be on the nearest to the point of attachment.

The adventitious roots of the newly initiated root suckers reveal growth downwards on the distal end of the roots reaching down to the root cambium of the Trembling Aspen clone or grove.  Adventitious means formed accidentally or in an unusual anatomical position.  These sucker roots will rely on the parent root for water and nutrients for the first few years.  In some cases the suckers rely on the parent roots for more than 20 years.  This interplay between parent root and ramet gives the sucker a distinct advantage over Aspen seedlings and other species arising on the forest floor.

Whereas shoots arising inside the meristem are one way to give rise to shoots as above, there are also shoots which arise from the exterior surface of Aspen roots from pre-existing primordia.  It is believed that these primordia arise from injury or disturbance to the root system, perhaps by a grazing animal.   Primordia comes from the Latin root prīmōrdiālis which is the earliest stage of development of the organism.

Root sprouting is the most commonly seen means of reproduction for the Trembling Aspen.  This is referred to as vegetative asexual reproduction.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx)
The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) Leafy branchlet, Female Ament or catkin, Young Male Ament or catkin, Fruit, Floral Bract.

A Trembling Aspen grove or stand of trees is connected underground by this common root system originating from the ortet.  Each Aspen Clone is dioecious.  One Aspen stand of trees may be composed of a mosaic of clones with their roots interspersed with each other.  Dioecious means that there are distinct male and female organisms, or boy and girl clones.  A stamen is the pollen producing male organ of the flower.  Pistils arise on the flowers of the female Trembling Aspen stands, and feature a base ovary, a style or pillar which extends from the ovary to the stigma. The stigma is sticky enabling it to capture the pollen from the male Trembling Aspen clone.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) A Dioecious Catkin or Ament
The Trembling Aspen  Dioecious Catkin or Ament

A Trembling Aspen feature aments, also referred to as catkins.  Each catkin bears many tiny dense flowers.  The name catkin comes from the German root “kätzchen,” or in Dutch “katteken” meaning kitten.  The  aments look like the furry tail of a kitten. The catkins can be anywhere from 1 to 8 cm in length (1-1/2” – 3”) The flowers with red stigmas are female flowers.  The flowers bearing black, dark anthers are male flowers.  The seeds will spread in the wind across distances of 500 meters (1,600 feet) up to several kilometers in heavy winds. The seeds are plumose, which means having many fine filaments or branches which give a feathery appearance.  Seedlings have barriers to establishment because early spring rainfall in the semi-arid prairie regions may be followed by a dry period ~ killing newly germinated seedlings.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) A Dioecious Catkin or Ament
The Trembling Aspen  Dioecious Catkin or Ament

Trembling Aspen will hybridize, or cross with other species of poplar trees (Populus)

The extent of a single Trembling Aspen clone of trees can be determined by several features; morphology, and phenology.  These two methods bring in the observation of the leaf size and shape, the character and colour of the bark, and the changes in the season.  Morphological analysis is the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features such as the outward appearance of the shape, structure, colour, pattern and size of the visible aspects.  Morphology has as its roots the Greek word, morphé “form” and logos “the study of.”  The study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors (such as elevation) is the science referred to as phenology.  Phenology means the study of the influence of climate on recurring natural phenomena, and is derived from phainō, which is Greek for “to show, to bring to light, make to appear” and logos.

Taking the observations one step further would be to employ a procedure called digital morphometrics.  This digital approach utilizing scanned leaf images carefully tracking the location and statistics of each leaf, and comparing the digital scans of each leaf recording the analysis and observation of the morphology of each digital leaf scan.  Specific and unique clone signatures appear under the observation of discernible patterns.

Aspens feature leaf dimorphism which arise from two types of leaflets, featuring short fixed shoot (stem) growth, and long free shoot  growth.  Short shoots can only produce embroynic early leaves, and are the very first set of leaves which appear in the spring from the winter bud.  Embroyo is from the Greek embryon, “a young one”, or “one that grows at an early stage of development.”  This is referred to as the spring flush.  The first late leaves are also present in the winter bud, but they are arrested primordia or stopped at the beginning.  Primordia comes from primus meaning ”first” and ordior “to begin”.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) Autumn colour of foliage
The Trembling Aspen Autumn foliage

Lateral long shoots may produce “early” or “late” leaves.  The fact that the long shoots can produce two types of leaves means that they are called heterophyllous stems or shoots.  Heterophyllous meaning having two different kinds of leaves on the same stem comes from the Greek root heteros meaning “other”, and phyllon, “leaf”.  Late leaves have more variety in their shape than the early leaves.  Gland-tipped teeth are featured around the leaf margins on late leaves only.

A Trembling Aspen Clone leaf flush will occur at the same time because clones share the same genotype.  Likewise, since the Trembling Aspen genet is all one clone, the entire genet will change colour all at once in the autumn.

Scientists have studied how to differentiate one clone of Trembling Aspens from another, and there is much discussion and preferences stated on the criteria and methods used.  Hana Jelı´nkova et al have determined that finding the unique signature morphological traits to be superior to the use of spring phenology for successful analysis.

Spring phenology is more accurate than autumn phenological changes according to Michael Grant, and  J.M.I. McGrath et al wrote that the phenology during spring flush showed a variety in morphology depending upon climate change variations.  Both first and second leaf flushes, and their characteristics (morphology) were studied by Samuel B. St. Clair’s team.  Defoliation of the leaves by insects, may require the trees to flush out a second time, as would drought and temperature extremes such as a late spring frost causing damage and defoliation of the first flush. Defoliation is to destroy or cause widespread loss of leaves.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) May 25, 2019
The Trembling Aspen Leaflets and Dioecious Catkin or Ament May 25, 2019

The size and shape of leaves showed a variety between Trembling Aspen groves depending upon if the trees were in an area of elevated oxygen or Carbon Dioxide. In an interesting data collection, Reimo Lutter et al studied spring and autumn phenology on the Aspen tree from one year to the next, and found that the growing season has been lengthening.

“The timing of bud break and bud set represents events in survival and growth, discernment of these mechanisms and their interactions with climatic variables is a key to understand the consequences of the projected climate change for Populus forests”(Sivadasan, 2017). Leaf phenology has been shifting in response to earlier leaf flushing due to warm winters in relation to climate change state Yongshuo et al. Now then, Joyce G. Greene suggested that it would be wise to look at six different features to seperate Aspen clones;

  1. “Sex
  2. Time of leafing, and of leaf fall
  3. Spring and Autumn leaf colour
  4. Shape and Size of leaves,
  5. Leave serration
  6. Pubescence of dormant buds.”(DeByle, 1985)

Burton V. Barnes developed another set of criteria for distinguishing clones, by season and in order of usefulness.

All Seasons

  • Bark

1. Texture

  1. Color
  • Stem Characteristics
  1. Form
  2. Branching habit (angle, length, and internode length)
  • Susceptibility to injury
  1. Sunscald
  2. Frost crack
  3. Insect and disease injury Miscellaneous
  4. Self-pruning
  5. Galls ~ Plant galls are abnormal swelling outgrowth of plant tissues caused by various parasites, from viruses, fungi and bacteria, to other plants, insects and mites.
  • Spring
  1. Sex
  2. Time of flowering, and flower characteristics
  3. Time, color, and rate of leaf flushing
  • Summer
    1. Leaf shape (width : length ratio), color, and size
    2. Shape of leaf blade base
    3. Leaf margin; number, size, and shape of teeth
    4. Shape of leaf tip
    5. Leaf rust infection
  • Autumn
    1. Leaf color
    2. Time and rate of leaf fall”

(DeByle, 1985)

Note: Pages 149-152 of  Norbert V DeByle book features an appendix entitled, Wild Mammals and Birds Found in Aspen and Aspen-Conifer Mixed Forests of Western United States and Adjacent Canada.

Article copyright Julia Adamson

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) Autumn colour of foliage
The Trembling Aspen  Autumn foliage

Citizen Science:

Use these tools to track the morphology and the phenology of the Trembling Aspens out at Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, and in the George Genereux Urban Regional park.  There is more than one Trembling Aspen stand in both the afforestation greenspaces.

Nature’s Notebook

iNaturalist

Project Budburst

CoCoRahs Rain, hail, snow network

International Drought Experiment

Leafsnap

A great way to engage in citizen science at the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, and in the George Genereux Urban Regional park is to post your images on their facebook pages!

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Questions:

  1.  Is it easy or difficult to determine how the Trembling Aspen clone groves are distinct from each other in the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, and in the George Genereux Urban Regional park?  Can this interesting experiment to study morphology and phenology in relation to clonal colonies be repeated to determine where one genet begins and another ends?  How many female genets are there?  How many male genets?  How many Trembling Aspen groves are mixed mosaics of both female and male clones?
  1. What is the role of Auxin?
  1. Have you seen Heterophyllous long stem shoots?
  1. What colour is the bark of the Trembling Aspen?
  1. What colour is the Trembling Aspen leaf in the autumn?
  1. What is a catkin?
  1. What time of year would it be best to see a catkin – spring, summer, autumn or winter?
  1. What does dioecious mean?
  1. What is the difference between stoloniferous roots and those which are rhizomatous?
  1. What is an ortet, and what is a ramet? Are they related to each other?
  1. How do Trembling Aspens propagate?
  1. What colour are Trembling Aspen stigmas? What colour are Trembling Aspen anthers?
  1. What does plumose mean?
  1. What does morphology mean?
  1. What is phenology?
  1. Would you prefer to use phenology or morphology to study an Trembling Aspen stand of trees to determine if it is a mosaic, or a male clone or a female clone?
  1. What upsets the Trembling Aspen’s hormonal balance?
  2. How can studying phenology with citizen science lay the methodology for observing the effects of climate change?

Curriculum:

Grade 1 LT1.1, Grade 3 PL3.1, Grade 6 DL6.2 ,Grade 9 RE9.3, Grade 11 ES20‐SDS1, ES20‐ES1, ES20‐TE2

Additionally, field tours are presented at the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and at George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Free Printed Resources are available during field tours.

Bibliography

Ahmad, Muhammad Salehuddin; Hasim, Nor Wahidah (2019), Plant Tissues Meristem, Scribd, retrieved May 25, 2019

Barnes, Burton V. 1969. Natural variation and delinea- tion of clones of Populus tremuloides and P. gran- didentata in northern lower Michigan. Silvae Genetica 18:130-142

Basham, J.T. (1993), Trembling Aspen Quality in Northern Ontario – Various Aspects of Decay and Stain Studies and their Management Implications (PDF), Forestry Canada. Ontario Region. Great Lakes Forestry Centre. Information Report 0-X-421, retrieved May 25, 2019 

DeByle, Norbert V.; Winokur, Robert P. (August 1985), (PDF), United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. General Technical Report RM-119. https://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr119.pdf, retrieved May 25, 2019

Grant, M. & Mitton, J. (2010) Case Study: The Glorious, Golden, and Gigantic Quaking Aspen. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):40

Herben, Tomáš (September 2001), Rhizome: a model of clonal grow (PDF), Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University and at the Institute of Botany, Czech Academy of Science, retrieved May 25, 2019

Hunter, Baye, Trembling aspen Peuplier faux-tremble Populus tremuloides Michx, Canadian Tree Tours, retrieved May 25, 2019 

Jelı´nkova; Tremblay, Francine; DesRochers, Annie (November 15, 2013), The use of digital morphometrics and spring phenology for clone recognition in trembling aspen (populus tremuloides michx.) and its comparison to microsatellite markers, ÓSpringer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Lutter, Reimo; Tullus, Arvo; Tullus, Tea; Tullus, Hardi (December 2016), Spring and autumn phenology of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) genotypes of different geographic origin in hemiboreal Estonia§, New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science For. Sci. (2016) 46: 20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40490-016-0078-7, retrieved May 25, 2019

Mayer, Amy (01 March 2010), Phenology and Citizen Science: Volunteers have documented seasonal events for more than a century, and scientific studies are benefiting from the data, BioScience, Volume 60, Issue 3, March 2010, Pages 172–175, https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2010.60.3.3, retrieved May 25, 2019

McGrath, JMI; Karnosky, DF; Ainsworth, EA (jULY 21 2009), Spring leaf flush in aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones is altered by long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone concentration., Environ Pollut. 2010 Apr;158(4):1023-8. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2009.07.004. Epub 2009 Jul 21., retrieved May 25, 2019 

Peltzer, Duane A (2019), Does clonal integration improve competitive ability? A test using aspen (Populus tremuloides [Salicaceae]) invasion into prairie, American Journal of Botany Volume 89, Issue 3 Botanical Society of America, retrieved May 25, 2019 

Schier, George A (May 29, 1972), Origin and Development of Aspen Root Suckers, U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Intermountain and Range Experiment Station, Ogden Utah, retrieved May 25, 2019

Sivadasan, Unnikrishnan; Randriamanana, Tendry; Chenhao, Cao; Virjamo, Virpi; Nybakken, Line; Julkunen‐Tiitto, Riitta (October 7 2017), Effect of climate change on bud phenology of young aspen plants (Populus tremula. L), Ecol Evol. 2017 Oct; 7(19): 7998–8007. Published online 2017 Sep 1. doi: 10.1002/ece3.3352, retrieved May 25, 2019

St. Clair, Samuel B.; et al. (October 1, 2009), Altered leaf morphology, leaf resource dilution and defense chemistry induction in frost-defoliated aspen (Populus tremuloides), Tree Physiology, Volume 29, Issue 10, October 2009, Pages 1259–1268, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpp058 Published: 01 October 2009, retrieved May 25, 2019 

Yongshuo, S.H. Fu; et al. (May 20, 2014), Effect of climate change on bud phenology of young aspen plants (Populus tremula. L), PNAS May 20, 2014 111 (20) 7355-7360; first published May 5, 2014 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1321727111, retrieved May 25, 2019

SPECIES: Populus tremuloides, Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) Index of Species Information Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory, 2018, December 4, retrieved May 25, 2019 

St. Clair, Samuel B.; Monson, Steven D.; Smith, Eric A.; Cahill, David G.; Calder, William J. (October 1, 2009), Altered leaf morphology, leaf resource dilution and defense chemistry induction in frost-defoliated aspen (Populus tremuloides), Tree Physiology, Volume 29, Issue 10, October 2009, Pages 1259–1268, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpp058, retrieved May 25, 2019

“Children’s experience with the natural world seems to be overlooked to a large extent in research on child development, but it would be interesting to examine children’s early experiences with nature and follow how those experiences in nature and follow how those experiences influence the child’s long-term comfort with and respect for the natural world ~ comfort and respect…Given the power of nature to calm and soothe us in our hurried lives, it also would be interesting to study how a family’s connection to nature influences the general quality of family relationships. Speaking from my own personal experience, my own family’s relationships have been nourished over years through shared experiences in nature ~ from sharing our toddler’s wonder upon turning over a rock and discovering a magnificent bug the size of a mouse, to paddling our old canoe down a nearby creek during the children’s school years, to hiking the mountains.” ~ Martha Farrell Erickson

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

“Healing the broken bond between children and nature may seem to be an overwhelming, even impossible task. But we must hold the conviction that the direction of this trend can be changed, or at least slowed. The alternative to holding and acting on that belief is unthinkable for human health and for the natural environment. The environmental attachment theory is a good guiding principle: attachment to land is good for child and land.” ~ Richard Louv

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

You Tube Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

You Tube George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Should you wish to help protect / enhance the afforestation areas, please contact the City of Saskatoon, Corporate Revenue Division, 222 3rd Ave N, Saskatoon, SK S7K 0J5…to support the afforestation area with your donation please state that your donation should support the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, or the George Genereux Urban Regional Park, or both afforestation areas located in the Blairmore Sector. Please and thank you!  Your donation is greatly appreciated.

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

“They recognize that while knowledge about nature is vital; passion is the long-distance fuel for the struggle to save what is left of our natural heritage and ~ through an emerging green urbanism ~ to reconstitute lost land and water. Passion does not arrive on videotape or on a CD; passion is personal. Passion is lifted from the earth itself by the muddy hands of the young; it travels along grass-stained sleeves to the heart. If we are going to save environmentalism and the environment, we must also save an endangered indicator species: the child in nature.”~ Richard Louv.

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Afforestation Area Mammals

In the city of Saskatoon, the George Genereux Urban Regional Park and the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area are great places to learn and experience nature education.  The semi wilderness habitat makes great homes for animals.  What do visitors of the afforestation areas need to know when visiting the homes of these residents?

White-tailed Deer Fawn. Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area. Saskatoon, SK, CA
White-tailed Deer Fawn. Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area. Saskatoon, SK, CA

Why do deer and moose appreciate the George Genereux Urban Regional Park and the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area in Saskatoon?

An animal that feeds on plants is referred to as an herbivore. There are many different kinds of herbivorous mammals which frequent the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and George Genereux Urban Regional Park. The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Moose (Alces alces) are among the herbivourous mammals of the afforestation areas.

How are these two deers recognized?  Mule deer have larger ears than the White-tailed deer, however, that feature may only help with binoculars.  There is another way to make identification.

When alarmed, a mule deer will run with a bounce referred to as stotting (also called pronking or pronging). The deer literally springs into the air, lifting all four feet off the ground simultaneously.

A white-tailed deer, will show, or flash its white tail when alarmed. This alarm response is called “Tail flare” which is used by all deer, though more visible to humans for the white-tailed deer species. The flashing tail alerts all of the herd to danger. The flashing tail held up while the herd is fleeing is a very easy target for the fawns to follow through forest thickets and heavy brush so it does not get lost.

A moose is recognized by its distinctive shape with features such as its larger size, a hump on its back and the rounded nose which make it easy to distinguish a moose from a deer. The horns on a bull moose are very distinct from the horns of a deer stag. A baby moose is a calf, a male moose is called a bull, a female moose is called a cow. A male deer is called stag or buck, a female deer is called doe or hind, and a young deer is called fawn, kid or calf.

Deer and moose are digrastic animals, which means that they have a unique pair of muscles under their jaw which act to open and close their mouth. One unique thing about all deer species, is that there is a lack of teeth in their front upper jaw. When looking in the habitat for evidence of deer or moose, search for a ragged edge on twigs which show signs of damage. Be aware of the height of the twigs off the ground, and the time of the year when you think these animals may be browsing on trees.

Another way to identify a habitat in which deer or moose call their home is to be aware of their droppings or “Scat.” During the summer months, a moose may leave piles which resemble cow droppings. In the winter a moose the scat changes to long round pellets larger than those of a deer or a rabbit. Deer usually have piles of black to dark brown pellets. If the animals are near a good water source, their scat may clump. Deer pellets are about the size of chocolate covered raisins. Rabbit scat is smaller, and very round, Moose scat is larger, elongated and bigger than chocolate covered almonds.

To help in the identification of wildlife in George Genereux Urban Regional Park and the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, also look for tracks (footprints) in the soil, or in the snow. Freshly fallen snow, makes it easy to see animal tracks. Moose have cloven hooves longer than 18 centimetres (7 inches). Cloven means split or divided in two. Deers also have split hooves, though the tracks are much smaller. A deer track is 4 – 7.5 cm (1-1/2 to 3 inches) in length. Deers are also much smaller in mass, so the depression in the soil or snow is lighter than the deep depression made by a heavy moose.

Which are human, deer and rabbit tracks in the above images?

Moose are solitary animals, but White-tailed deers live together in herds. There are two types of herds for the White-tailed deer community. The does and fawns herd together, and the bucks herd together, except during the mating season. Mule deers will come together as a united herd, males and females until spring. In the spring, Mule deer adopt behaviors similar to the herding patterns of White-tailed deer. The does and fawns will stay together to seek protective habitats, and males will take the risk of being in sight of predators, and search out rich, abundant food sources.

If you see long grasses flattened, or a depression in the fresh snow, which are about 1.2 meters (four feet) in diameter, then that is likely where a moose may have lain down to rest.  Deers also spend 70% of their time lying down.

These animals ~deer and moose~ are also referred to as ruminants. Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. The process, which takes place in the front part of the digestive system and therefore is called foregut fermentation, typically requires the fermented ingesta (known as cud) to be regurgitated and chewed again. The process of rechewing the cud to further break down plant matter and stimulate digestion is called rumination. These animals gather their food quickly, and later find a place to rest safe from predators. It is when they are in their safe place that they can regurgitate their food and re-chew it fully.

The Trembling Aspen is the preferred food of deer, though they will search out the “Balm of Gilead” from the Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera). Balm of Gilead is made from the resinous gum of the Balsam Poplar.  Deer will only resort to eating the buds of the Colorado Blue Spruce (Picea pungens) if they are starving, and in desperate circumstances.

The diet of the deers does vary. When foliage is green during the late spring and summer, deers will turn to eating grasses, sedges, winter cereals and other forbs. A forb is a flowering plant other than a grass. Crops, leaves, tender twigs, and buds are also mainstays. As the seasons change, deers will turn to cut alfalfa hay fields in the autumn. Deers rely almost exclusively on twigs and buds throughout the winter, and into early spring choosing Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides), Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), Willow (‎Salix; ‎L.), Western Snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis), and Prickly Rose (Rosa acicularis).

Just as the deer diet varies through the seasons, so too does the diet of the moose. Summer provides catkins, leaves, tall grasses bark, pine cones, twigs and buds of trees and shrubs. Winter food is much harder to forage (forage means to search widely for food). Moose will resort to willow bushes and woody plants.

Fawns are born between the middle of May to the end of June. Deers will leave their fawns alone in order to feed. However, the doe is usually within 90 meters of where she leaves her fawn. If the doe leaves the fawn by itself, if there are any predators in the area, the predators follow the scent of the doe, and the chances of survival for the fawn increases. The doe knows there is little chance that predators will find her fawn, because she attends to the grooming of her fawn which means that there is little scent on her little fawn. The doe returns at sunrise or sunset to check on their offspring. The doe will make the decision to move her fawn, or feed them at that site. Usually the fawn is left concealed in a thicket of tall grass.

Moose calves are also born in the spring. A calf can walk from the first day that they are born, and they stay with the cow for their first year.  The mating season of the moose takes place in September and October, during these months moose may become more aggressive.  However, generally speaking, Moose are docile towards humans.  Moose have a better sense of hearing and sense of smell than humans, and a poorer sense of sight.   Never approach a moose, but observe from a safe distance.

Deers require trees and shrubs for protection, as the open prairie does not afford them shelter from the elements nor do the prairie grasslands provide enough cover to hide from their predators.

Article copyright Julia Adamson

Questions

What is the most interesting thing about deers?  About moose?

When walking through the George Genereux Urban Regional Park and the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is it easy or hard to find out if deer or moose are there? Is it easier in the summer or the winter months? Why or why not?

What should humans do if they found a fawn in the George Genereux Urban Regional Park or the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? Is it important to let others know about animal behaviour and habitats? Why?

What do moose and deer like the best about the George Genereux Urban Regional Park and the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Areas? Why?

What do you know about the mating season of deer and moose? Would you want to meet a deer or a moose during mating season? Why or why not?

If you compare your diet to the diet of the deer and moose, what benefits do deer and moose derive from the wetlands?

Do humans chew their cud like a deer or moose? Why or why not?

Are Moose calves, or Deer fawns larger?

What impact to domesticated dogs have on the habitat of deers and moose?  What impact does the addition of the human footprint in an eco-system have on the habitat of deers and moose?

What is the difference between the antlers of a bull moose and a deer buck?

Would you sight a deer or a moose in a tree? Would a deer or moose burrow into the ground? Would living underwater in the wetlands be a suitable habitat for deer or moose? Why or why not?

If you were to create a woodland mammal what would it look like? What would your animal eat? Why?

Curriculum:

Saskatchewan Curriculum Study
Kindergarden LTK.1, MOK.1
Grade One LT1.1
Grade Two AN 2.1, AN2.2, AN2.3

Additionally, field tours are presented at the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and at George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Free Printed Resources are available during field tours.

Bibliography

Baby Deer, The Wildlife Center of Virginia, retrieved 2019-05-17

Bradford, Alina (November 13, 2014). “Moose: Facts About the Largest Deer”. https://www.livescience.com/27408-moose.html. Live Science.

Bryson, Jennifer (2015). “Scat Identification. A Visual Aid to Scat Identification” (PDF). Think Trees. Manitoba Envirothon. Retrieved November 29, 2008.

Chaney Chaney, Professor of Tree Physiology, William R. (8/2003), Why Do Animals Eat the Bark and Wood of Trees and Shrubs? (PDF), Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, retrieved 2019-05-17

Curtis, Paul D; Sullivan, Kristi L. (2001), White-Tailed Deer (PDF), Wildlife Damage Management Fact Sheet Series Cornell Cooperative Extension Cornell Cooperative Extension, by Cornell University, retrieved 2019-05-17

DEER! – Don’t touch that baby!, Deer-Forest Study The Pennsylvania State University, May 5, 2015, retrieved 2019-05-17

Egbert, Rathiha (July 3, 2006). “Moose tracks Largest of the deer family, Alces alces is a surprisingly tricky ungulate to track”. Canadian Geographic. Canadian Geographic Enterprises. Retrieved May 5, 2019.

A Field Guide to Whitetail Communication – Whitetails Unlimited (PDF), Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and Whitetails Unlimited, Inc, 2006, retrieved 2019-05-17

Forest Foods Deer Eat, Department of Natural Resources Michigan, 2019, retrieved 2019-05-17

Geist, Valerius (2019). “Mule deer mammal”. https://www.britannica.com/animal/mule-deer. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

How do deer survive winter eating twigs?, Naturally North Idaho, December 19, 2014, retrieved 2019-05-17

“Identifying Brown or Black Droppings”. http://icwdm.org/Inspection/BlackBrownDroppings.aspx. Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management. 2015.

“Moose Facts for Kids”. http://naturemappingfoundation.org/natmap/facts/moose_k6.html. Washington NatureMapping Animal Facts for Kids.

Pasture and Forage for White-Tailed Deer, Government of Saskatchewan Business >> Agriculture Natural Resources and Industry >> Agribusiness Farmers and Ranchers>> Elk and Deer, retrieved 2019-05-17

Recognising types of mammal damage to trees and woodland, Forest Research UK Government, 2019, retrieved 2019-05-17

Vikki, Simons-Krupp, Understanding Deer, Santa Cruz CA Native Animal Rescue, retrieved 2019-05-17

Wilderness Dave (November 29, 2008). “Moose Scientific Name: Alces alces”. http://www.wildernessclassroom.com/wilderness-library/moose/. Wilderness Classroom.

Wilderness Dave. “White-Tailed Deer”. http://www.wildernessclassroom.com/wilderness-library/white-tailed-deer/. Wilderness Classroom.

 

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

You Tube Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

You Tube George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Should you wish to help protect / enhance the afforestation areas, please contact the City of Saskatoon, Corporate Revenue Division, 222 3rd Ave N, Saskatoon, SK S7K 0J5…to support the afforestation area with your donation please state that your donation should support the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, or the George Genereux Urban Regional Park, or both afforestation areas located in the Blairmore Sector. Please and thank you!  Your donation is greatly appreciated.

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

 

“ “We forget that we owe our existence to  the presence of Trees.   As far as forest  cover goes, we have never been in such a  vulnerable position as we are today.  The  only answer is to plant more Trees – to  Plant Trees for Our Lives.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker.

“The science of forestry arose from the recognition of a universal need. It embodies the spirit of service to mankind in attempting to provide a means of supplying forever a necessity of life and, in addition, ministering to man’s aesthetic tastes and recreational interests. Besides, the spiritual side of human nature needs the refreshing inspiration which comes from trees and woodlands. If a nation saves its trees, the trees will save the nation. And nations as well as tribes may be brought together in this great movement, based on the ideal of beautifying the world by the cultivation of one of God’s loveliest creatures – the tree.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker.

“I believed that God has lent us the Earth. It belongs as much to those who come after us as to us, and it ill behooves us by anything we do or neglect, to deprive them of benefits which are in our power to bequeath.” Richard St. Barbe Baker

 

 

 

 

Trembling Aspen

Trembling Aspen grove Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CA
Trembling Aspen grove [in 2016] Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CA

It was the summer of 2017, did you see it?

The Populus tremuloides (Trembling Aspen or Quaking Aspen) groves were struggling, and suffering tremendously. The defoliation caused by the Tent Caterpillar Malacosoma disstria was so severe, that combined with the severe drought, the vigour and vitality of the Aspen Trees was greatly reduced.  2017 saw the fourth year of the Tent Caterpillar infestation in Saskatoon. When healthy trees that are completely stripped of their leaves are able to refoliate their leaves after the caterpillars have feasted, however the second growth is smaller and, indeed, may be inadequate to compensate for the damage caused. The attack of the caterpillars may even kill the top of the tree, side branches and even the whole tree may expire with multi-years of excessive defoliation.

 

James J. Worrall et al, explains that drought, tent caterpillars and other factors contribute to the decline of Trembling Aspens. Severe drought precipitates the most drastic decline, followed by foliage stripped by tent caterpillars  year after year. Aspen stands cannot recover from such shocks to the system on a multiyear basis, without relief.

 

“It’s almost as if nature has forgotten how to rain in parts of Saskatchewan,[9]” said David Phillips, senior Climatologist with Environment Canada, who goes on to explain that, “It really does show you the kind of climate you have: a desert — dry, semi-arid, almost like Pheonix, Ariz. — where the days can be very hot, and in this case bone dry and not a cloud in the sky. All that heat from the day radiates into space … It left the nights relatively cool.[2]” Saskatoon received only 243.6 millimetres [9.6 inches] of precipitation, bringing 2017 into the top five driest years for the city.

Not only was 2017 setting records for the driest years in history books, the problem for the Trembling Aspen was compounded as being the worst for the Tent Caterpillar plague. “We’re in a boom period for the tent caterpillar,” [10] ” said Tyler Wist, Field crop entomologist for Agriculture and AgriFood Canada. The tent caterpillar has a natural predator in birds, as well as the eggs of the sarcophagid fly.

 Effects on overall health of aspen.  Repeated defoliation by forest tent caterpillar may not allow trees to recover to a normal state of health, which can lead to decline.  ~ Natural Resources Canada

Trembling Aspen grove Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CA
Trembling Aspen grove [in 2016]  Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CA

Following two or more years of severe feeding there is a general decline in tree health, including twig and branch dieback. After three or four consecutive years of being stripped of their leaves trees can be weakened and may be more susceptible to insects, such as wood borers, and stem disease. Following forest tent caterpillar infestations the incidence of hypoxylon canker, a fungal stem disease, may increase and cause extensive damage in aspen forests.  “~ Forestry Branch

Late spring frosts kill buds leading to early, mass larval stravation. Alberta Government.

“When populations are low, the egg masses on small plants can be removed by hand and destroyed between July and the following spring. Hand picking can inflict significant larval mortality.
Destruction of occupied tents by hand or with a brush leads to colony collapse. Pruning to remove egg masses, tents, or groups of larvae must be done sparingly to avoid injuring the plant. Using fire to accomplish this is not recommended as it damages the plant more than the defoliation.”~Forest Health Protection
 The trembling aspen is known to grow as a clonal colony in which the stems [trunks] arise from one huge conjoined root system.  Whereas the tree stems of the Trembling Aspen may be determined by its tree rings, the roots may be much older than that of the tree trunks.  In the semi-arid regions of the west, Trembling Aspen are more likely to establish new trees via suckering from an established root system rather than from seed.  It is intriguing to learn that the Aspen Tree is really only a small fraction of a much larger organism.  Malcolm F. Squires reports that clones of Aspens may have sprouted following the Pleistocene era after the retreat of the great ice age, creating the oldest organisms in the world.  One can tell one Aspen clone growth from another, as leaves will emerge in the spring and turn to yellow in the fall in the same clone, and a neighbouring clone will exhibit a different time scale.
If a clone of Aspen trees from the same root is even aged, and has thrived in near to full sunlight, is severely attacked and stripped of its leaves by tent caterpillars causing some of the Aspen trees to die back.  The Aspen roots, in some cases, if the soil is healthy, be able to regenerate from suckers.  Young saplings will rise from the roots in the openings, or these young trees may take advantage of thin crowns.  The Aspen stand will show this uneven age structure, until the remaining tree trunks die off, and all the tree stems become even aged.
“Jack Schultz, a Pennsylvania State University entomologist… discovered that aspens react chemically to insect attack.  Soon after the caterpillar start chewing, the trees’ remaining leaves produce bitter-tasting phenol compounds to discourage further eating” [5]
 In 2017, it was seen that the Trembling Aspen stands lost their leaves, and a second smaller growth was seen coming late in the summer season.  Watch if and how the Aspen stand recovers in 2018.  It will be also interesting to note if 2018 again succumbs to a double whammy of drought and tent caterpillar.  Saskatchewan is a province of cyclical weather alternating between drought and years with a high water table [perhaps even flooding].   The tent caterpillars well, their cycle lasts between three to seven years, and they normally re-occur in 15-20 year intervals.
The round leaves turning golden in the autumn months, quivering, and catching the light as the breeze tosses the golden discs this way and that, give the Trembling Aspen the appearance of being a “Money Tree” as its branches dance in gold.
Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. The name comes from the Latin silvi- (forest) + culture (as in growing).  Richard St. Barbe Baker attended Cambridge University, graduating as a silviculturist.
Enroll your body, soul and spirit and engage your time to do what you know best. Dedicate yourself to the work at hand and you will be rewarded by the fruits you will bear!”― Israelmore Ayivor, The Great Hand Book of Quotes

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Allen Bonnie.
‘The damage is done’: Home electricity boxes igniting in Sask. drought
Regina’s driest July in 130 years also threatening livestock, crops and farmers’ livelihoods”
CBC News Aug 04, 2017

2 Climenhaga, Christy. Regina experiences driest July in 130 years. July topped the charts for hot and dry weather in southern Saskatchewan CBC News Aug 01, 2017

3. Climenhaga, Christy. 2017 driest year on record for some Sask. communities
Driest year ever for Assiniboia, Moose Jaw; Regina saw 2nd-driest year, with only 40% of normal precipitation
CBC News. January 6, 2018.

4. Climenhaga, Christy. Regina and Swift Current could see their driest July on record
Southern Saskatchewan still waiting for rain after bone-dry July
CBC News July 27, 2017.

5. Fergus, Charles.  Trees of Pennsylvania and the Northeast. Edition illustrated Publisher Stackpole Books, 2002 ISBN 0811720926, 9780811720922

5. Giles, David. Forest tent caterpillars invade Saskatoon Global News. May 24, 2017

6. Graham, Jennifer. Dry weather withering crops, stressing farmers in southern Saskatchewan The Canadian Press August 6, 2017

7. Graham, Jennifer. This Saskatchewan farm’s ground is so dry a wrench ‘would disappear’ in its cracks Environment Canada figures show Regina had only 1.8 millimetres of rain last month — the driest July in 130 years. The Canadian Press. August 6, 2017

8. Its more than rare.” Environment Canada says southern Saskatchewan’s dry July will break records 620 CKRM Juy 27, 2017.

9. Knox, Shawn. Dundurn, Sask. woman tired of tent caterpillar infestation Global News. June 1, 2017.

10. Lizee, Tiffany. Southern Saskatchewan in drought for almost a year Global News. October 14, 2017

11. Martell, Creeden. ‘They just keep coming’: Tent caterpillar invasion coats Sask. home in insects — and feces  Saskatchewan in a boom period for tent caterpillars CBC News May 31, 2017

12. Petrow, Erin.  Caterpillars thrive for the fourth consecutive year Saskatoon Star Phoenix. May 24, 2017.

13. Prestwich, Emma Caterpillars Cover Saskatchewan Woman’s Property And It’s Super Disgusting Huffpost Canada.

14. Squires, Malcolm F.  Dynamic Forest: Man Versus Nature in the Boreal Forest
Volume 7 of Point of View Contributor John Kennedy Naysmith
Edition illustrated Publisher Dundurn, 2017 ISBN 1459739345, 9781459739345

15. Tent caterpillars: Tips to help control the outbreak Specialist says outbreaks happen every 10 to 15 years and last up to six years CBC News May 31, 2016

16. Tu, Chau Earth’s biggest living thing might be a tree with thousands of clones Science Friday.  May 5, 2015

17. Worrall, James J., Gerald E. Rehfeldt, Andreas Hamann, Edward H. Hogg, Suzanne B. Marchetti, Michael Michealian, and Laura K. Gray. Recent declines of Populus tremuloides in North America linked to climate Volume 299, Issue , July 2013, Pages 35-51

 

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

Should you wish to help protect / enhance the afforestation areas, please contact the City of Saskatoon, Corporate Revenue Division, 222 3rd Ave N, Saskatoon, SK S7K 0J5…to support the afforestation area with your donation please state that your donation should support the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, or the George Genereux Urban Regional Park, or both afforestation areas located in the Blairmore Sector. Please and thank you!  Your donation is greatly appreciated.

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

 

“St. Barbe’s unique capacity to pass on his enthusiasm to others. . . Many foresters all over the world found their vocations as a result of hearing ‘The Man of the Trees’ speak. I certainly did, but his impact has been much wider than that. Through his global lecture tours, St. Barbe has made millions of people aware of the importance of trees and forests to our planet.” Allan Grainger

 

“From the forest and wilderness come the tonics and bark which brace mankind…A town is saved, not more by the righteous men in it than by the woods and swamps that surround it…”
-Henry David Thoreau

 

“This generation may either be the last to exist in any semblance of a civilised world or that it will be the first to have the vision, the bearing and the greatness to say, ‘I will have nothing to do with this destruction of life, I will play no part in this devastation of the land, I am determined to live and work for peaceful construction for I am morally responsible for the world of today and the generations of tomorrow.'”
Richard St. Barbe Baker

Forest Eco-systems

Have you ever heard of an Edible Forest Gardens?

Would you know how to create a Forest Garden?

Picture yourself in a forest where almost everything around  you is food.  …An edible forest garden is a perennial polyculture  of multi-purpose plants. Dave Jacke,  Eric Toensmeier 

Focused on National Forest Week September 24 – September 30,. 2017.  The Canadian Forestry Association  states that the theme this year is Canada’s Forests: Our Stories, Our Future Celebrating Canada’s Forests!

What kind of stories do Saskatoon Forests tell?  Do you think any of Saskatoon’s Forests are Edible Forest Gardens?

What do you know of Trembling Aspen, Colorado Blue Spruce, American Elm, Buffaloberry, Snowberry, Scots Pine, or Balsam Poplar?  Would any of these stately trees and bushes ever have an edible quality to them?  Historically, or in contemporary time what would be the answer examining a forest of such trees as an edible forest garden?

Edible forest gardens, indeed do readily comprise the Saskatoon berry, high bush and low bush cranberry, the pincherry, the raspberry, wild strawberry, the rosehip, and the chokecherry.  But trees?  The Balsam Poplar, could it ever be a part of an edible forest garden?  Would anyone survive on a tree in the middle of any old forest in the dead cold of winter?

What a story might be told.. a Saskatoon Forest Story for this year’s National Forest Week embracing Canada’s Forests: Our Stories, Our Future Celebrating Canada’s Forests!  Check out the local grassroots initiative!

The world is so unpredictable. Things happen suddenly, unexpectedly. We want to feel we are in control of our own existence. In some ways we are, in some ways we’re not. We are ruled by the forces of chance and coincidence.

Paul Auster

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

Should you wish to help protect / enhance the afforestation areas, please contact the City of Saskatoon, Corporate Revenue Division, 222 3rd Ave N, Saskatoon, SK S7K 0J5…to support the afforestation area with your donation please state that your donation should support the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, or the George Genereux Urban Regional Park, or both afforestation areas located in the Blairmore Sector. Please and thank you!  Your donation is greatly appreciated.

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

 

“St. Barbe’s unique capacity to pass on his enthusiasm to others. . . Many foresters all over the world found their vocations as a result of hearing ‘The Man of the Trees’ speak. I certainly did, but his impact has been much wider than that. Through his global lecture tours, St. Barbe has made millions of people aware of the importance of trees and forests to our planet.” Allan Grainger

“We forget that we owe our existence to the presence of Trees. As far as forest cover goes, we have never been in such a vulnerable position as we are today. The only answer is to plant more Trees – to Plant Trees for Our Lives.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker

“Act. Don’t react. See a need, fix it first. Worry about the details later. If you wait until you are asked you have just missed a golden opportunity. They are fleeting and rare.” Philip Wollen founder of Winsome Kindness Trust

 

Green Mansions of Saskatoon

“I became intoxicated with the beauty all around me, immersed in the joyousness and exultation of feeling part of it all….I had entered the temple of the woods. “Richard St. Barbe Baker.

The Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

  The afforestation area formerly named George Genereux Park

We are growing to love the trees and forests as we turn more and more to outdoor life for recreation and sport, and finding them truly irreplaceable. In our ramblings along shady streets, through grassy parks, over wooded valleys, and in prairie wildernesses we find that much more than formerly we are asking ourselves what are these trees, what are the leaf, flower, twig, wood and habit characteristics which distinguish them from other trees; how large do they grow; under what conditions of soil and climate do they thrive best; what are their enemies and how can they be overcome; what is their protective value; are they useful for planting along streets and in parks and in regenerating forests; how can the trees of our afforestation area,  streets and lawns be preserved and repaired as they begin to fail from old age or other causes?

Trembling Aspen grove Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Trembling Aspen grove Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

In view of the growing taste for rural life, and of the multiplication of country residences in all parts of the province, especially in the vicinity of the cities and of the larger towns, this article will make a special feature of discussing the planning and planting of the afforestation areas of Saskatoon ~ The Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and the afforestation area formerly named George Genereux Park.. Historically, the City of Saskatoon parks department under the guidance of Bert Wellman, in their endeavor to assist the city in its desire to make the urban surroundings attractive and artistic.

Study of the flowering plants or Phanerogamia of the botanist. This classification includes:

  • Gymnosperms (Naked Seeds.)
    • Cycadaceae. (Palms, Ferns, etc.)
    • Gnetaceae. (Joint firs)
    • Conifers. Pines, first, etc.
  • Angiosperms (Fruits.)
    • Monocotyledons. (One seed-leaf.) (Palms, bamboos, grasses, etc.)
    • Dicotyledons. (Two seed -leaves.)
      • Herbs.
      • Broad-leaved trees.

Of fruit-bearing trees (angiosperms), there are two classes, those that have one seed-leaf as they germinate, and those that have two seed-leaves. are the needle-leaved trees or the conifers, including such trees as the pines, cedars, spruces, firs, etc. Under the fruit-bearing trees (angiosperms), are those that have two seed-leaves (the dicotyledons) and include the great mass of broad-leaved or deciduous trees such as chestnut, oak, ash and maple.

“Come forth into the light of things,
Let Nature be your Teacher.”
—Wordsworth.

Exploring classifications, even further, they may be quite inaccurate etymologically speaking. Many of the so-called deciduous (Latin, deciduus, falling off) trees are actually evergreen, such those of other locales holly, live oak, magnolia and cherry. So, too, some of the alleged “evergreens,” like bald cypress and the tamarack or larch shed their leaves annually.

“I became intoxicated with the beauty all around me, immersed in the joyousness and exultation of feeling part of it all….I had entered the temple of the woods. “Richard St. Barbe Baker.

The pines belong to the coniferous class of trees; that is, trees which bear cones. The pines may be told from the other coniferous trees by their leaves, which are in the form of needles two inches or more in length. These needles keep green throughout the entire year. To classify pines one from the other examine the pine needl clusters. In the white pine there are five needles to each cluster, in the pitch pine three, and in the Scotch pine two. The Scotch pine needles are short compared with those of the white pine, and slightly twisted. The bark, especially along the upper portion of the trunk, is reddish in color. Overall, Scotch pine is a medium-sized tree with a short crown which grows best on a deep, rich, sandy soil, but will also grow on a dry, porous soil.

To preserve wild animals implies generally the creation of a forest for them to dwell in or resort to. So it is with man.~Henry D. Thoreau

The spruces are pyramidal-shaped trees, with tall and tapering trunks, thickly covered with branches, forming a compact crown. They are widely distributed throughout the cold and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, where they often form thick forests over extended areas. The Colorado blue spruce ( Picea pungens) ommonly used in parks, can be told from the other spruces by its pale-blue or sage-green color and its sharp-pointed, coarse-feeling twigs. Its small size and sharp-pointed conical form are also characteristic.

The blue sky, the brown soil beneath, the grass, the trees, the animals, the wind, and rain, and stars are never strange to me; for I am in and of and am one with them; and my flesh and the soil are one, and the heat in my blood and in the sunshine are one, and the winds and the tempests and my passions are one. ~ W.H. Hudson

American Elm (Ulmus americana) can be told at a glance by its general branching habit. The limbs arch out into a wide-spreading fan or vase-like crown which loses itself in numerous fine drooping branchlets. The elm prefers a deep, rich and moist soil, but will adapt itself even to the poor soil of the city street.

We do not realize how far and widely, or how near and narrowly, we are to look. The greater part of the phenomena of Nature are for this reason concealed from us all our lives. The gardener sees only the gardener’s garden. Nature does not cast pearls before swine. There is just as much beauty visible to us in the landscape as we are prepared to appreciate,—not a grain more. We cannot see anything until we are possessed with the idea of it, take it into our heads,—and then we can hardly see anything else. This is the history of my finding a score or more of rare plants, which I could name. A man sees only what concerns him. A botanist absorbed in the study of grasses does not distinguish the grandest Pasture Oaks. How much more, then, it requires different intentions of the eye and of the mind to attend to different departments of knowledge! How differently the poet and the naturalist look at objects! ~Henry D. Thoreau

The quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides),  and the black or balsam poplar also known as the balm of Gilead (Populus balsamifera) are other common members of the poplar group. The quaking aspen may be told by its reddish-brown twigs, narrow sharp-pointed buds, and by its small finely toothed leaves. The large-toothed aspen has thicker and rather downy buds and broader and more widely toothed leaves. The balsam poplar has a large bud thickly covered with a sticky, pungent, gelatinous substance. Its flowers, in the form of large catkins, a peculiarity of all poplars, appear in the early spring.

Some of the Fine Arts appeal to the ear, others to the eye. There is the art whose purpose it is to create beautiful compositions upon the surface of the ground. No replacement can be found for this artform, for it is as fine as the finest, and which demands as much of its professors in the way of creative power and executive skill as the most difficult. The parks department, herein referred to as The more perfectly the artist attains his aim, the more likely we are to forget that he has been at work. the landscape artist uses the same materials as nature herself. In what is called “natural” gardening it uses them to produce effects which under fortunate conditions nature might produce without man’s aid.

Glad at having discovered the existence of this forest so near home, and wondering why my urban friends had never taken me to it nor ever went out on that side, I set forth with a light heart to explore it for myself. What a wild beauty and fragrance and melodiousness it possessed above all forests, because of that mystery that drew me to it! And it was mine, truly and absolutely—as much mine as any portion of earth’s surface could belong to any man—mine with all its products: the precious woods and fruits and fragrant gums that would never be bought nor sold; its wild animals that man would never persecute; ~ W.H. Hudson

Again, the landscape-gardener’s art differs from all others in the unstable character of its productions. When surfaces are modeled and plants arranged, nature and the artist must work a long time together before the true result appears; and when once it has revealed itself, day to day attention will be forever needed to preserve it from the deforming effects of time. It is easy to see how often neglect or interference must work havoc with the best intentions, how often the passage of years must travesty or destroy the best results, how rare must be the cases in which a work of landscape art really does justice to its creator.

See for yourself, explore the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and the afforestation area formerly named George Genereux Park.  See the afforestation areas as a naturalist, as an entymologist, bicycle rider, as a botanist, dog walker, a geologist, or an ornithologist.  How does your viewpoint of the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and the afforestation area formerly named George Genereux Park change with each hat that is worn?

And caring not in that solitude to disguise my feelings from myself, and from the wide heaven that looked down and saw me—for this is the sweetest thing that solitude has for us, that we are free in it, and no convention holds us—I dropped on my knees and kissed the prairie ground, then casting up my eyes, thanked the Author of my being for the gift of that wild forest, those green mansions where I had found so great a happiness! ~W.H. Hudson

52° 06′ 106° 45′

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

Should you wish to help protect / enhance the afforestation areas, please contact the City of Saskatoon, Corporate Revenue Division, 222 3rd Ave N, Saskatoon, SK S7K 0J5…to support the afforestation area with your support please state that your donation should support the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, or the George Genereux Urban Regional Park, or both afforestation areas located in the Blairmore Sector. Please and thank you!  Your donation is greatly appreciated.

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

You Tube Video Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

You Tube Video Richard St Barbe Baker presented by Paul Hanley

You Tube Video Richard St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and West Swale wetlands

You Tube Video Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area – Saskatoon’s best kept secret.

 

 

Our task must be to free ourselves … by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature and its beauty.~Albert Einstein

“This generation may either be the last to exist in any semblance of a civilised world or that it will be the first to have the vision, the bearing and the greatness to say, ‘I will have nothing to do with this destruction of life, I will play no part in this devastation of the land, I am determined to live and work for peaceful construction for I am morally responsible for the world of today and the generations of tomorrow.’” ~ Richard St Barbe Baker

 

Dream lofty dreams

Trees worked for millions of years to make it possible for man to come on this planet.

When speaking of the trees planted in the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, and those wooded areas with native growth, which tree is the loftiest of them all?

  • American Elm Ulmus americana a deciduous tree 20-25 meter (66 – 82 feet) tall.Green Ash Fraxinux pennsyvica a deciduous tree 12 m (39 feet) tall.
  • Balsam Poplar (Black Poplar) Populus Balsamifera deciduous tree reaching on occasion 25 m tall however usually 10-15 meters (33 – 39 feet).
  • Trembling Aspen Populus tremuloides a native deciduous tree usually 20 meters tall, but can reach 30 meters (98 feet) in height.
  • Siberian Elm Ulmus pumila. A deciduous tree. 10-20 meters (33 – 66 feet) in height.
  • Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. coniferous tree up to 35 meters (115 feet) in height, though an exception may reach higher than 45 meters (148 feet).
  • Blue spruce, (green spruce, white spruce, Colorado spruce, or Colorado blue spruce), Picea pungens is a columnar evergreen conifer which may grow 23 meters (75 feet) in its native habitat, however when planted it usually grows to about 15 meters (49 feet) tall.
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At the moment the Balsam Poplar seems to be the tree reaching lofty heights at the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area. Though statistically, the Scots pine can extend higher in its reach, the Scots pine is a slower growing tree than the Balsam Poplar. With the canopy of the Balsam poplar, this tree also has an impressive, and grand stature in this urban regional park with its extraordinary canopy of leaves. Towering above the caragana, snowberry bushes, and roes, the Balsam Poplar is a grand sight with its yellow leaves in the autumn. The Balsam poplar attracts moose, deer,and other ungulates, and it is true that the Richard St. Barbe Baker has become a nurturing environment for White tail deer and Mule deer. Bees also hover to the Balsam poplar using the resin obtained from the buds to waterproof their hives. The eco-system at the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation area, is an amazing aspen parkland system set into the West Swale with picturesque wetlands. The planted trees of the afforestation area, and the geological features of the west Swale combine to prevent the surrounding city of Saskatoon and RM of Corman Park 344 land areas from excessive flooding during years and seasons with high water tables.

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Dream lofty dreams, and as you dream, so you shall become. Your vision is the promise of what you shall one day be; your ideal is the prophecy of what you shall at last unveil. ~ James Allen

Trees worked for millions of years to make it possible for man to come on this planet. Yet man, who owns his presence on this Earth to trees, has been cutting, burning, greedily and recklessly. He has turned the forest into desert, until today we are faced not only with a timber famine, but with a food famine. ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker.

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For more information:

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Facebook: StBarbeBaker
Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Facebook: South West OLRA
Contact the Meewasin Valley Authority in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The MVA has begun a Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund. If you wish to support the afforestation area with your donation, write a cheque to the “Meewasin Valley Authority Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund (MVA RSBBAA trust fund)”. Please and thank you!
Twitter: StBarbeBaker