A Problem and Great Dilemna

There is a problem

 

“If you are seeking creative ideas, go out walking.  Angels whisper to a man when he goes for a walk.” — Raymond Inmon

A great and undeniable problem has arisen. The dilemna which calls calls from the heights of the untrodden immutable forest kingdom. Yet borne up within by courage unflinching, the morning’s faint light through the narrow embrasure, rugged, majestic, the trees, they tower far above.

The June Rose has bloomed as if on cue with calendraic reminder that May has past. Joining June Rose across the vast prairies is Canada Anemone, white and true, and waving as a spring bonnet in the breeze High Hush Cranberry flower doilies toss to and fro. Traveling yet the plains, what could possibly capture the heart more than the delicate bloom of the False Solomon’s Seal and Bunch Berry or, no, it just may be the blossom of the Red Osier Dogwood.

One may then cry out forests are perfect!  However, that leads one to the problem at hand.  In the course of this June study we shall have to touch on what is called the problem of perfection and grandeur. But in this primary matter of the ideal the difficulty is not the problem of magnificence, or perfection, but mayhaps the problem of abundance. Life, thus unfolds and is full of little problems, which arise suddenly and find one wholly unprepared with a solution.

What is that you say? Is it not a wonder to behold the sunset, A gold fringe on the purpling hem of woodlands or mayhaps the sunrise, the fresh-blown rose of dawn, is that not what one should call perfect and spectacular? The reflections of the sky captured in the waters below, amplifying the beauty times two – nay this is perfection! Did you forget perchance, amid the broken clouds the rainbow’s angel spanned? The double rainbow colours bright or light prism dancing amid the crystal dew, what could be more perfect than that? Did you not catch sight of the butterfly flittering past, the Swallowtail and Fritallaries and Mourning Cloaks? Did you stop to listen to listen to the warbling notes from her fair songsters’ feathered throats ~ are these tunes not Perfection at its finest?

You are left free to judge of these problems and dilemnas now with fresh minds to ponder and consider these issues…  And this brings the tale to another problem.  Which is more perfect, the wetlands fresh the new families of ducks, and goslings or the understorey bedecked in blooms, or the marsh spangled with the rays of the Aurora Borealis? How, then is one to choose?   On this particular June day, how will the problem resolve?   Or do your heart strings pull at the sight of a glorious winter’s hoar frost day, the majestic mountain, rippling waterfall, or span of ocean?

“In every walk with nature one receives far more than he seeks.” — John Muir

Be contented; enjoy your fine imagination; and do not throw your salad out of window, nor shove your cat off your knee, on hearing it said that Shakespeare has a finer, or that a minister is of opinion that you know more of music than of nature.

The exertion of intellectual power, of fancy and imagination affords us greatly more than their enjoyment. We are motes in the midst of generations: we have our sunbeams to circuit and climb. Look at the summits of the trees around us, how they move, and the loftiest the most: nothing is at rest within the compass of our view.

Do not imagine that the illusion is, or can be, or ought to be, complete. Imagination makes encroachments on the heart, and uses it as her own. Imagination could finish the story, this single June Day confronts the senses with the main outline of the whole problem.

“Yesterday was the happiest day of my life. Every new day that follows the previous day is happier and what better than this I can wish for my friend. “I wish you health and strength of an oak, the long life of a redwood.” Richard St. Barbe Baker

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

You Tube Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

You Tube George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

QR Code FOR PAYPAL DONATIONS to the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc.
Paypal
Payment Options
Membership : $20.00 CAD – yearly
Membership with donation : $50.00 CAD
Membership with donation : $100.00 CAD

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

 

“St. Barbe’s unique capacity to pass on his enthusiasm to others. . . Many foresters all over the world found their vocations as a result of hearing ‘The Man of the Trees’ speak. I certainly did, but his impact has been much wider than that. Through his global lecture tours, St. Barbe has made millions of people aware of the importance of trees and forests to our planet.” Allan Grainger

“The science of forestry arose from the recognition of a universal need. It embodies the spirit of service to mankind in attempting to provide a means of supplying forever a necessity of life and, in addition, ministering to man’s aesthetic tastes and recreational interests. Besides, the spiritual side of human nature needs the refreshing inspiration which comes from trees and woodlands. If a nation saves its trees, the trees will save the nation. And nations as well as tribes may be brought together in this great movement, based on the ideal of beautifying the world by the cultivation of one of God’s loveliest creatures – the tree.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker.

 

Hiking Boots
Hiking Boots ready for the trail

DEDICATION.I need give my verse no hint as to whom it sings for. The rose, knowing her own right, makes servitors of the light-rays to carry her color. So every line here shall in some sense breathe of thee, and in its very face bear record of her whom, however unworthily, it seeks to serve and honor. ~George Parsons Lathrop

Snowshoes upon the snow
Snowshoes upon the snow ~ days gone by.

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Hiking is a bit like life

Recreation and Parks Month (JRPM)

is celebrated for the month of June!

What an excellent way to bring in the summer months.

 

June 1, 2019 is a Saturday, and also commemorates International Trail Day which falls on the first Saturday of June.

By June the Winter season for the Winter Fatbike Trail Network is finished as all the snow has indeed melted.  However, that being said, Jeff Hehn ambassador of the Fatlanders Fat Tire Brigade and other members of this group have created Fatbike winter trails in addition to the existing to the paths previously extant in the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area.

Additionally, the city of Saskatoon has created the South West Off Leash Recreation Area, with trails to enjoy, and take your dog along on the trails.

The Saskatoon Nature Society did in fact include the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area in their 2016 new edition of the book. “Nature Viewing Sites in and around Saskatoon”.  Members of the Nature society have been actively ringing (banding) birds in the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area for a number of years, so keep your eyes open while out on the trails, and bring your binoculars and cameras.

Walking: the most ancient exercise and still the best modern exercise.
Carrie Latet

Participants in the trails day event at the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, or at  the Afforestation formerly known as George Genereux Urban Regional Park, are invited to post on facebook your photos while walking, bicycling, hiking, or bird-watching along the trail incorporating why you love urban forests in Saskatoon.

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

To show your appreciation for the afforestation area, while you are out on the trails, please bring along an extra plastic bag and volunteer to remove debris in the afforestation area, or remove trash in the parking lots or scoop some poop in the off leash area.

These are the ethics of “Leave no trace” to help preserve the afforestation area and its trails for the future generations, and for your families use tomorrow.

Take someone to the Richard St. Barbe Baker afforestation area who has never been to this “best kept secret” of Saskatoon or perhaps take your family out on a new trail which you have not explored yet.

“Hiking is a bit like life:

The journey only requires you to put one foot in front of the other…again and again and again.

And if you allow yourself the opportunity to be present throughout the entirety of the trek,

you will witness beauty every step of the way,

not just at the summit” ~Unknown

Take only photos and memories, Each leaf, flower, stone and berry is an integral part of the ecosystem in the afforestation area. If we were to remove items from the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area we are removing what may be food and shelter for the wildlife community.

Leave only footprints along the paths. Animals and wildlife subsist better on food from the wild. Trash can cause distress and harm to the animals and vegetation and wetlands in the area. Human food and human garbage can make animals sick. This is a wetlands area, trash can also make humans sick as the West Swale drains into the South Saskatchewan River.

Walk on a rainbow trail; walk on a trail of song, and all about you will be beauty. There is a way out of every dark mist, over a rainbow trail. Robert Motherwell

Explore the afforestation area with respect. Extend your adventure on the trails of the park to preserve the ecological system. Walking off path disturbs the vegetation of the understory and affects the water drainage of the site. There are still wild animals in the afforestation area, and as the city grows, it would be amazing if it would stay that way for future generations to enjoy as well.

Sustainable trails and trail signage preserve the wildlife habitat, prevent erosion, conserve the forest understory, and provide a conservation friendly direction for the eco-footprint caused by an increase in users

With a growing awareness of the afforestation area, a proper trail network establishing proper and appropriate paths mitigates damage to wildlife habitat and ensures long term preservation practices while allowing increasing numbers of user to appreciate the full scenic beauty of the afforestation area. Well planned sustainable trails mitigate soil movement and erosion, require minimal long term maintenance, while allowing vegetation and wildlife to inhabit the area.
Eliminating illegal use of motorized vehicles in the afforestation area and the wetlands will eliminate unprecedented erosion, ecological and habitat damage. Taking responsibility and accountability for the environment will increase public appreciation for a picturesque urban forest by walkers, bicycle riders, educational classes, naturalists, bird watchers, and a number of other users on properly planned and designed pathways to mitigate the ecosystem footprint.

Remember next year’s International Trails Day is June 6, 2020.

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

You Tube Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

You Tube George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

QR Code FOR PAYPAL DONATIONS to the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc.
Paypal
Payment Options
Membership : $20.00 CAD – yearly
Membership with donation : $50.00 CAD
Membership with donation : $100.00 CAD

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

 

“St. Barbe’s unique capacity to pass on his enthusiasm to others. . . Many foresters all over the world found their vocations as a result of hearing ‘The Man of the Trees’ speak. I certainly did, but his impact has been much wider than that. Through his global lecture tours, St. Barbe has made millions of people aware of the importance of trees and forests to our planet.” Allan Grainger

“The science of forestry arose from the recognition of a universal need. It embodies the spirit of service to mankind in attempting to provide a means of supplying forever a necessity of life and, in addition, ministering to man’s aesthetic tastes and recreational interests. Besides, the spiritual side of human nature needs the refreshing inspiration which comes from trees and woodlands. If a nation saves its trees, the trees will save the nation. And nations as well as tribes may be brought together in this great movement, based on the ideal of beautifying the world by the cultivation of one of God’s loveliest creatures – the tree.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker.

 

“The trees and vegetation, which cover the land surface of the Earth and delight the eye, are performing vital tasks incumbent upon the vegetable world in nature. Its presence is essential to earth as an organism. It is the first condition of all life; it is the “Skin” of the earth, for without it there can be no water and, therefore, no life.”Richard St. Barbe Baker

 

 

 

Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx)

 

A ramet is an individual plant belonging to a clone. The botanical term for a sucker is ramet.   The clone originates from one ortet.  An ortet is the original or mother plant.  A clonal colony is also referred to as a genet.  A genet is the group of genetically identical individuals, such as plants, fungi, or bacteria, that have grown in a given location, all originating vegetatively, not sexually, from a single ancestor.  In plants, an individual in such a population is referred to as a ramet.  All plants (ramets) reproduced asexually from a common ancestor (ortet) and have identical genotypes which means it is an exact clone or perfect copy of the original ortet. A genotype is the genetic constitution of an individual organism.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx)
The Trembling Aspen May 25, 2019

Tomáš Herben of the Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University and at the Institute of Botany, Czech Academy of Science relates rhizomes to clonal growth.  Rhizome is from both Latin and Greek root rhizoma meaning “mass of tree roots”, and from the root rhizoun meaning “cause to strike root, root into the ground” and from the Green rhiz meaning “root” and -ome.  In botany, rhizome is a horizontal, underground plant stem which is able to produce the shoot and root systems of a new plant.  Duana A. Pelzer, also states that “Aspen (Populus tremuloides) dominates the southern treeline in western Canada, has long‐lived below ground connections between mother and daughter ramets, and reproduces vegetatively via resprouting rhizomes.”  The Trembling Aspen clone can be called rhizomatous.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) May 25, 2019
The Trembling Aspen  May 25, 2019

Scientists, foresters or gardeners can practice vegetative propagation using rooted cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture.  In the case of the Trembling Aspen, the original plant is also called the ortet.

The Trembling Aspen root suckers are produced from meristems featured in the cork cambium of the root systems.   The Cambium is a layer of tissue between the wood and the bark from the Latin cambium meaning “exchange” and Latin cambiare “change.  The cork cambrium, also called a phellogen, produces an outer protective barrier or corky tissue, and an inner phelloderm- a thin, food conducting vascular tissue.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) May 25, 2019
The Trembling Aspen tree bark May 25, 2019

The roots twist, coil and undulate underground.  Growing sideways, laterally,  they do not reach lower than 40 cm (16 inches) below the surface of the soil and most often stay within  2 to 10 cm (1 to 4 in) from the soil surface.

A meristem is a collection of cells forming plant tissue in the zones where plant growth can take place.  These undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells) have the capability for cell division, promoting growth and change. Meristem comes from the Greek root “merizein” which means “to divide” which is the main function of the merismatic cells, to change and divide thus providing new growth for the tree.  Differentiated plant cells cannot produce new growth, as they cannot change.

The shoots develop following apical dominance.  Apical dominance occurs when the shoot apex inhibits the growth of lateral buds so that the plant may grow vertically upwards towards the light. These shoots however, lie in wait, remaining dormant due to hormones called “Auxin” expressed by the main Trembling Aspen clone.  High soil temperature, depletion of carbohydrate  food sources, or excess soil moisture may inhibit the formation of suckers.  If the Aspen Grove is disturbed, the hormonal balance is upset within the Trembling Aspen grove.  There is a decrease in Auxin allowing meristem to develop into buds, then into shoots above ground, finally developing fully producing ramets which can be visibly seen above ground as part of the Trembling Aspen grove.  Suckers originate after disturbances such as clearcutting, girdling, tree defoliation or fire.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) May 25, 2019
The Trembling Aspen Dioecious Catkin or Ament May 25, 2019

When the suckers start to form, the parent root changes.  The suckering rhizomatous root system has four parts:

  1. The root collar, stump or root cap
  2. The distal parent root
  3. The proximal parent root
  4. The adventitious roots

The root collar is the underground area of the Trembling Aspen sucker where it adjoins the stem.  This root collar is the protective layer, so that apical meristem (upward changing new growth) is not affected by rocks, dirt or pathogens (germs.)  The sucker roots and the parent roots cannot be distinguished from each other at the root collar, root cap or stump.

The distal parent root grows quite large to accommodate the new sucker formation.  The distal parent root fills with juicy sap, and is quite succulent and tender. Distal means situated on the outside edge away from the point of attachment to the parent.

The proximal root which is on the close side of the root collar, or stump formation.  Proximal means to be on the nearest to the point of attachment.

The adventitious roots of the newly initiated root suckers reveal growth downwards on the distal end of the roots reaching down to the root cambium of the Trembling Aspen clone or grove.  Adventitious means formed accidentally or in an unusual anatomical position.  These sucker roots will rely on the parent root for water and nutrients for the first few years.  In some cases the suckers rely on the parent roots for more than 20 years.  This interplay between parent root and ramet gives the sucker a distinct advantage over Aspen seedlings and other species arising on the forest floor.

Whereas shoots arising inside the meristem are one way to give rise to shoots as above, there are also shoots which arise from the exterior surface of Aspen roots from pre-existing primordia.  It is believed that these primordia arise from injury or disturbance to the root system, perhaps by a grazing animal.   Primordia comes from the Latin root prīmōrdiālis which is the earliest stage of development of the organism.

Root sprouting is the most commonly seen means of reproduction for the Trembling Aspen.  This is referred to as vegetative asexual reproduction.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx)
The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) Leafy branchlet, Female Ament or catkin, Young Male Ament or catkin, Fruit, Floral Bract.

A Trembling Aspen grove or stand of trees is connected underground by this common root system originating from the ortet.  Each Aspen Clone is dioecious.  One Aspen stand of trees may be composed of a mosaic of clones with their roots interspersed with each other.  Dioecious means that there are distinct male and female organisms, or boy and girl clones.  A stamen is the pollen producing male organ of the flower.  Pistils arise on the flowers of the female Trembling Aspen stands, and feature a base ovary, a style or pillar which extends from the ovary to the stigma. The stigma is sticky enabling it to capture the pollen from the male Trembling Aspen clone.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) A Dioecious Catkin or Ament
The Trembling Aspen  Dioecious Catkin or Ament

A Trembling Aspen feature aments, also referred to as catkins.  Each catkin bears many tiny dense flowers.  The name catkin comes from the German root “kätzchen,” or in Dutch “katteken” meaning kitten.  The  aments look like the furry tail of a kitten. The catkins can be anywhere from 1 to 8 cm in length (1-1/2” – 3”) The flowers with red stigmas are female flowers.  The flowers bearing black, dark anthers are male flowers.  The seeds will spread in the wind across distances of 500 meters (1,600 feet) up to several kilometers in heavy winds. The seeds are plumose, which means having many fine filaments or branches which give a feathery appearance.  Seedlings have barriers to establishment because early spring rainfall in the semi-arid prairie regions may be followed by a dry period ~ killing newly germinated seedlings.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) A Dioecious Catkin or Ament
The Trembling Aspen  Dioecious Catkin or Ament

Trembling Aspen will hybridize, or cross with other species of poplar trees (Populus)

The extent of a single Trembling Aspen clone of trees can be determined by several features; morphology, and phenology.  These two methods bring in the observation of the leaf size and shape, the character and colour of the bark, and the changes in the season.  Morphological analysis is the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features such as the outward appearance of the shape, structure, colour, pattern and size of the visible aspects.  Morphology has as its roots the Greek word, morphé “form” and logos “the study of.”  The study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors (such as elevation) is the science referred to as phenology.  Phenology means the study of the influence of climate on recurring natural phenomena, and is derived from phainō, which is Greek for “to show, to bring to light, make to appear” and logos.

Taking the observations one step further would be to employ a procedure called digital morphometrics.  This digital approach utilizing scanned leaf images carefully tracking the location and statistics of each leaf, and comparing the digital scans of each leaf recording the analysis and observation of the morphology of each digital leaf scan.  Specific and unique clone signatures appear under the observation of discernible patterns.

Aspens feature leaf dimorphism which arise from two types of leaflets, featuring short fixed shoot (stem) growth, and long free shoot  growth.  Short shoots can only produce embroynic early leaves, and are the very first set of leaves which appear in the spring from the winter bud.  Embroyo is from the Greek embryon, “a young one”, or “one that grows at an early stage of development.”  This is referred to as the spring flush.  The first late leaves are also present in the winter bud, but they are arrested primordia or stopped at the beginning.  Primordia comes from primus meaning ”first” and ordior “to begin”.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) Autumn colour of foliage
The Trembling Aspen Autumn foliage

Lateral long shoots may produce “early” or “late” leaves.  The fact that the long shoots can produce two types of leaves means that they are called heterophyllous stems or shoots.  Heterophyllous meaning having two different kinds of leaves on the same stem comes from the Greek root heteros meaning “other”, and phyllon, “leaf”.  Late leaves have more variety in their shape than the early leaves.  Gland-tipped teeth are featured around the leaf margins on late leaves only.

A Trembling Aspen Clone leaf flush will occur at the same time because clones share the same genotype.  Likewise, since the Trembling Aspen genet is all one clone, the entire genet will change colour all at once in the autumn.

Scientists have studied how to differentiate one clone of Trembling Aspens from another, and there is much discussion and preferences stated on the criteria and methods used.  Hana Jelı´nkova et al have determined that finding the unique signature morphological traits to be superior to the use of spring phenology for successful analysis.

Spring phenology is more accurate than autumn phenological changes according to Michael Grant, and  J.M.I. McGrath et al wrote that the phenology during spring flush showed a variety in morphology depending upon climate change variations.  Both first and second leaf flushes, and their characteristics (morphology) were studied by Samuel B. St. Clair’s team.  Defoliation of the leaves by insects, may require the trees to flush out a second time, as would drought and temperature extremes such as a late spring frost causing damage and defoliation of the first flush. Defoliation is to destroy or cause widespread loss of leaves.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) May 25, 2019
The Trembling Aspen Leaflets and Dioecious Catkin or Ament May 25, 2019

The size and shape of leaves showed a variety between Trembling Aspen groves depending upon if the trees were in an area of elevated oxygen or Carbon Dioxide. In an interesting data collection, Reimo Lutter et al studied spring and autumn phenology on the Aspen tree from one year to the next, and found that the growing season has been lengthening.

“The timing of bud break and bud set represents events in survival and growth, discernment of these mechanisms and their interactions with climatic variables is a key to understand the consequences of the projected climate change for Populus forests”(Sivadasan, 2017). Leaf phenology has been shifting in response to earlier leaf flushing due to warm winters in relation to climate change state Yongshuo et al. Now then, Joyce G. Greene suggested that it would be wise to look at six different features to seperate Aspen clones;

  1. “Sex
  2. Time of leafing, and of leaf fall
  3. Spring and Autumn leaf colour
  4. Shape and Size of leaves,
  5. Leave serration
  6. Pubescence of dormant buds.”(DeByle, 1985)

Burton V. Barnes developed another set of criteria for distinguishing clones, by season and in order of usefulness.

All Seasons

  • Bark

1. Texture

  1. Color
  • Stem Characteristics
  1. Form
  2. Branching habit (angle, length, and internode length)
  • Susceptibility to injury
  1. Sunscald
  2. Frost crack
  3. Insect and disease injury Miscellaneous
  4. Self-pruning
  5. Galls ~ Plant galls are abnormal swelling outgrowth of plant tissues caused by various parasites, from viruses, fungi and bacteria, to other plants, insects and mites.
  • Spring
  1. Sex
  2. Time of flowering, and flower characteristics
  3. Time, color, and rate of leaf flushing
  • Summer
    1. Leaf shape (width : length ratio), color, and size
    2. Shape of leaf blade base
    3. Leaf margin; number, size, and shape of teeth
    4. Shape of leaf tip
    5. Leaf rust infection
  • Autumn
    1. Leaf color
    2. Time and rate of leaf fall”

(DeByle, 1985)

Note: Pages 149-152 of  Norbert V DeByle book features an appendix entitled, Wild Mammals and Birds Found in Aspen and Aspen-Conifer Mixed Forests of Western United States and Adjacent Canada.

Article copyright Julia Adamson

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) Autumn colour of foliage
The Trembling Aspen  Autumn foliage

Citizen Science:

Use these tools to track the morphology and the phenology of the Trembling Aspens out at Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, and in the George Genereux Urban Regional park.  There is more than one Trembling Aspen stand in both the afforestation greenspaces.

Nature’s Notebook

iNaturalist

Project Budburst

CoCoRahs Rain, hail, snow network

International Drought Experiment

Leafsnap

A great way to engage in citizen science at the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, and in the George Genereux Urban Regional park is to post your images on their facebook pages!

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Questions:

  1.  Is it easy or difficult to determine how the Trembling Aspen clone groves are distinct from each other in the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, and in the George Genereux Urban Regional park?  Can this interesting experiment to study morphology and phenology in relation to clonal colonies be repeated to determine where one genet begins and another ends?  How many female genets are there?  How many male genets?  How many Trembling Aspen groves are mixed mosaics of both female and male clones?
  1. What is the role of Auxin?
  1. Have you seen Heterophyllous long stem shoots?
  1. What colour is the bark of the Trembling Aspen?
  1. What colour is the Trembling Aspen leaf in the autumn?
  1. What is a catkin?
  1. What time of year would it be best to see a catkin – spring, summer, autumn or winter?
  1. What does dioecious mean?
  1. What is the difference between stoloniferous roots and those which are rhizomatous?
  1. What is an ortet, and what is a ramet? Are they related to each other?
  1. How do Trembling Aspens propagate?
  1. What colour are Trembling Aspen stigmas? What colour are Trembling Aspen anthers?
  1. What does plumose mean?
  1. What does morphology mean?
  1. What is phenology?
  1. Would you prefer to use phenology or morphology to study an Trembling Aspen stand of trees to determine if it is a mosaic, or a male clone or a female clone?
  1. What upsets the Trembling Aspen’s hormonal balance?
  2. How can studying phenology with citizen science lay the methodology for observing the effects of climate change?

Curriculum:

Grade 1 LT1.1, Grade 3 PL3.1, Grade 6 DL6.2 ,Grade 9 RE9.3, Grade 11 ES20‐SDS1, ES20‐ES1, ES20‐TE2

Additionally, field tours are presented at the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and at George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Free Printed Resources are available during field tours.

Bibliography

Ahmad, Muhammad Salehuddin; Hasim, Nor Wahidah (2019), Plant Tissues Meristem, Scribd, retrieved May 25, 2019

Barnes, Burton V. 1969. Natural variation and delinea- tion of clones of Populus tremuloides and P. gran- didentata in northern lower Michigan. Silvae Genetica 18:130-142

Basham, J.T. (1993), Trembling Aspen Quality in Northern Ontario – Various Aspects of Decay and Stain Studies and their Management Implications (PDF), Forestry Canada. Ontario Region. Great Lakes Forestry Centre. Information Report 0-X-421, retrieved May 25, 2019 

DeByle, Norbert V.; Winokur, Robert P. (August 1985), (PDF), United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. General Technical Report RM-119. https://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr119.pdf, retrieved May 25, 2019

Grant, M. & Mitton, J. (2010) Case Study: The Glorious, Golden, and Gigantic Quaking Aspen. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):40

Herben, Tomáš (September 2001), Rhizome: a model of clonal grow (PDF), Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University and at the Institute of Botany, Czech Academy of Science, retrieved May 25, 2019

Hunter, Baye, Trembling aspen Peuplier faux-tremble Populus tremuloides Michx, Canadian Tree Tours, retrieved May 25, 2019 

Jelı´nkova; Tremblay, Francine; DesRochers, Annie (November 15, 2013), The use of digital morphometrics and spring phenology for clone recognition in trembling aspen (populus tremuloides michx.) and its comparison to microsatellite markers, ÓSpringer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Lutter, Reimo; Tullus, Arvo; Tullus, Tea; Tullus, Hardi (December 2016), Spring and autumn phenology of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) genotypes of different geographic origin in hemiboreal Estonia§, New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science For. Sci. (2016) 46: 20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40490-016-0078-7, retrieved May 25, 2019

Mayer, Amy (01 March 2010), Phenology and Citizen Science: Volunteers have documented seasonal events for more than a century, and scientific studies are benefiting from the data, BioScience, Volume 60, Issue 3, March 2010, Pages 172–175, https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2010.60.3.3, retrieved May 25, 2019

McGrath, JMI; Karnosky, DF; Ainsworth, EA (jULY 21 2009), Spring leaf flush in aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones is altered by long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone concentration., Environ Pollut. 2010 Apr;158(4):1023-8. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2009.07.004. Epub 2009 Jul 21., retrieved May 25, 2019 

Peltzer, Duane A (2019), Does clonal integration improve competitive ability? A test using aspen (Populus tremuloides [Salicaceae]) invasion into prairie, American Journal of Botany Volume 89, Issue 3 Botanical Society of America, retrieved May 25, 2019 

Schier, George A (May 29, 1972), Origin and Development of Aspen Root Suckers, U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Intermountain and Range Experiment Station, Ogden Utah, retrieved May 25, 2019

Sivadasan, Unnikrishnan; Randriamanana, Tendry; Chenhao, Cao; Virjamo, Virpi; Nybakken, Line; Julkunen‐Tiitto, Riitta (October 7 2017), Effect of climate change on bud phenology of young aspen plants (Populus tremula. L), Ecol Evol. 2017 Oct; 7(19): 7998–8007. Published online 2017 Sep 1. doi: 10.1002/ece3.3352, retrieved May 25, 2019

St. Clair, Samuel B.; et al. (October 1, 2009), Altered leaf morphology, leaf resource dilution and defense chemistry induction in frost-defoliated aspen (Populus tremuloides), Tree Physiology, Volume 29, Issue 10, October 2009, Pages 1259–1268, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpp058 Published: 01 October 2009, retrieved May 25, 2019 

Yongshuo, S.H. Fu; et al. (May 20, 2014), Effect of climate change on bud phenology of young aspen plants (Populus tremula. L), PNAS May 20, 2014 111 (20) 7355-7360; first published May 5, 2014 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1321727111, retrieved May 25, 2019

SPECIES: Populus tremuloides, Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) Index of Species Information Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory, 2018, December 4, retrieved May 25, 2019 

St. Clair, Samuel B.; Monson, Steven D.; Smith, Eric A.; Cahill, David G.; Calder, William J. (October 1, 2009), Altered leaf morphology, leaf resource dilution and defense chemistry induction in frost-defoliated aspen (Populus tremuloides), Tree Physiology, Volume 29, Issue 10, October 2009, Pages 1259–1268, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpp058, retrieved May 25, 2019

“Children’s experience with the natural world seems to be overlooked to a large extent in research on child development, but it would be interesting to examine children’s early experiences with nature and follow how those experiences in nature and follow how those experiences influence the child’s long-term comfort with and respect for the natural world ~ comfort and respect…Given the power of nature to calm and soothe us in our hurried lives, it also would be interesting to study how a family’s connection to nature influences the general quality of family relationships. Speaking from my own personal experience, my own family’s relationships have been nourished over years through shared experiences in nature ~ from sharing our toddler’s wonder upon turning over a rock and discovering a magnificent bug the size of a mouse, to paddling our old canoe down a nearby creek during the children’s school years, to hiking the mountains.” ~ Martha Farrell Erickson

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

“Healing the broken bond between children and nature may seem to be an overwhelming, even impossible task. But we must hold the conviction that the direction of this trend can be changed, or at least slowed. The alternative to holding and acting on that belief is unthinkable for human health and for the natural environment. The environmental attachment theory is a good guiding principle: attachment to land is good for child and land.” ~ Richard Louv

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

You Tube Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

You Tube George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

QR Code FOR PAYPAL DONATIONS to the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc.
Paypal
Payment Options
Membership : $20.00 CAD – yearly
Membership with donation : $50.00 CAD
Membership with donation : $100.00 CAD

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

“They recognize that while knowledge about nature is vital; passion is the long-distance fuel for the struggle to save what is left of our natural heritage and ~ through an emerging green urbanism ~ to reconstitute lost land and water. Passion does not arrive on videotape or on a CD; passion is personal. Passion is lifted from the earth itself by the muddy hands of the young; it travels along grass-stained sleeves to the heart. If we are going to save environmentalism and the environment, we must also save an endangered indicator species: the child in nature.”~ Richard Louv.

Zoning Notice

 

The Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area includes the south parts of section 22 and 23 township 36 range 6 west of the third meridian, and the Zoning Notice on page A4 mentions that the 310.4 acres of land on SW 22 36 6 W3 and SE 22 36 6 W3 are being changed from DAG1 to AG, “applied to lands used for the provision of public utilities.”

Check page “A4” of the Saskatoon Star Phoenix dated Monday April 15, 2019 and also check page “A10” of Saturday April 13, 2019.  See also Official Community Plan Notice

DAG1 means that the land is currently designated under the Corman Park – Saskatoon Planning District Zoning Bylaw.  Section 22 are those lands which basically are west of the Chappell Marsh wetlands, and section 23 to the east.  By altering the zoning to AG, it will infer that the entirety of the Richard St. Barbe Baker becomes AG (section 23, is already classified as AG, and was annexed Aug 2, 1963, and is currently totally within the City Planning district. City of Saskatoon Expansion of City Limits Map

The George Genereux Urban Regional Park 147.9 acre greenspace is located at NE quarter section 21 township 36 range 6 west of the third meridian, and has a civic address of 133 Range Road 3063.

This self same parcel of land so described above is being changed from the current interim zoning description DAG1 which means land designed without adequate services as shared with the RM of Corman Park 344 planning in conjunction with the City of Saskatoon planning.  The change will be from DAG1 to FUD – Future Urban Development for the community services department, planning and development.     “The FUD District is intended to apply land use controls and provide interim land uses and regulations until urban development occurs.”  This parcel of land was totally annexed into the City of Saskatoon boundaries on Sept 1, 2015, though remained in DAG1 (the Corman Park – Saskatoon Planning District Zoning Bylaw).

The question arises, why the George Genereux Urban Regional Park  is not being classified the same as the other neighbouring afforestation area named Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, which is classified as AG or agricultural district.  AG refers to “lands used for the provision of public utilities” and both afforestation areas, were classified as urban regional parks during the naming by city council in 1979.

Both George Genereux Urban Regional Park and  Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area are home to the Sask Energy Transmission line from the Queen Elizabeth Power Station to sites north and west of the QE.  Similarly both afforestation areas are home to the Trans Gas  natural gas lines, so it is an anomaly that they are being classified differently for the Building Standards city department when they are removed from the ” Corman Park – Saskatoon Planning District Zoning Bylaw” and plunked directly into the “Saskatoon city zoning bylaw” (not shared).

And the other question is why are they being classified as AG or agricultural district, and not as park space or naturalized area?

Please phone Paula Kotasek-Toth for further information.  City council will hear all submissions on the proposed amendment April 29, 2019 at 6:00 pm in City Council Chamber, Saskatoon, SK.  Please send a written submission before this date to

His Worship the Mayor and Members of City Council

C/O City Clerk’s Office, City Hall

222 Third Avenue North

Saskatoon, SK

S7K 0J5

Thank you.

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

You Tube Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

You Tube George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

QR Code FOR PAYPAL DONATIONS to the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc.
Paypal
Payment Options
Membership : $20.00 CAD – yearly
Membership with donation : $50.00 CAD
Membership with donation : $100.00 CAD

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

 

“St. Barbe’s unique capacity to pass on his enthusiasm to others. . . Many foresters all over the world found their vocations as a result of hearing ‘The Man of the Trees’ speak. I certainly did, but his impact has been much wider than that. Through his global lecture tours, St. Barbe has made millions of people aware of the importance of trees and forests to our planet.” Allan Grainger

“The science of forestry arose from the recognition of a universal need. It embodies the spirit of service to mankind in attempting to provide a means of supplying forever a necessity of life and, in addition, ministering to man’s aesthetic tastes and recreational interests. Besides, the spiritual side of human nature needs the refreshing inspiration which comes from trees and woodlands. If a nation saves its trees, the trees will save the nation. And nations as well as tribes may be brought together in this great movement, based on the ideal of beautifying the world by the cultivation of one of God’s loveliest creatures – the tree.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker.


“Be gentle – gentle – gentle with the tree,….Put your hands like this to bless it…I want you to feel your love going out from your fingertips to the …[tree], and, you know, this will help it grow, make it happy…We love to be blessed don’t we? And the trees love to be blessed. ..” ~Richard St. Barbe Baker

 

 

 

 

Coyotes: how to co-exist peacefully

 

Entering the forest means you are entering a semi-wilderness habitat.  You are entering the homes of many species of wild animals, this is what is absolutely wonderful about the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, and the George Genereux Urban Regional Park. “Forests are home to 80% of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity.~Arkive

“Successful green intervention is a negotiated settlement within a community,” says Dr. Eric Strauss, executive director for the Center for Urban Resilience, “Communities need to decide not what green spaces or animals they want, but what ecosystem services they want from their green space.
It’s mating season right now for coyotes Canis latrans.  Naturalist Kevin Cantelon provides some hints for living in harmony with coyotes.  If you own a large dog, a coyote may respond very protectively of its territory, and defend it’s den.  As with any wild animal, a parent coyote will defend its pups, and both male and female coyotes share in raising the litter.  Breeding season will also spike the coyote’s hunger.  A small dog may be seen as potential food for the pack, and a housecat is a treat.  For these reasons, if you are walking in an unfenced area, it is wise to keep your dogs onleash to reduce conflict with coyotes.
“Coyotes usually breed in February; litters of 5-7 pups (maximum 19) are born 60-63 days later (April to early May) in a den,” says C. S. Churcher, “Breeding begins at one year, and coyotes mate for life.” So, the mating season, sees an increase risk to your dog during this time of year.  Midwest Outdoors notes, that it is important to “spay or neuter your pet. Coyotes are attracted to and can mate with unspayed or unneutered domestic dogs. Unspayed female dogs in season can attract male coyotes.  Un-neutered male dogs can be lured away by the scent of a female coyote in her ovulation cycle.  Male dogs can be lured by the female coyote’s scent and killed by male coyotes.”
During breeding season, Jaymi Heimbuch reminds us also, “Coyotes that usually avoid any confrontation with humans or dogs will display more territorial behaviors, warning passers-by with vocalizations or even following them. And coyotes that would normally scamper off when chased by an off-leash dog will more likely stand its ground.”
Midwest Outdoors adds these precautions “Keep unattended cats and dogs indoors or in completely enclosed runs, especially at night, and do not assume that a fence will keep a coyote out of your back yard.
* Accompany your leashed pet outside.
* Keep dogs on short leashes while walking outside; the Division of Wildlife recommends a leash no longer than six feet.
* Leave noisemakers on hand to scare away coyotes that may enter your yard, such as whistles and horns.
* Yell, clap hands, blow a whistle and try to make yourself look larger if you have a close encounter with a coyote.” 
Cantelon noted, that if you do encounter a coyote, “Make them uncomfortable, throw a stick at them and haze them to make them not welcome.  And they will learn to stay away very, very quickly.”
“How can we have happy coyotes? …We have to learn how to make space for each other. We need cross-species diplomacy.” says  Stella Tarnay, an urban planner and co-founder of Biophilic DC, a group that works to make cities better habitats for animals and people.
Shara-Lynn Morrison noted that “The coyote gets your dog to chase him and then somewhere in the distance the pack waits for your dog.”  Your dog will act to defend you, and the coyote pack will be defending their pack, and their territory.  The government of Manitoba states coyotes”can be seen anytime of the day but are most active at night as they search for food and defend their territory from other coyotes. Often considered a predator of larger animals such as deer or livestock, coyotes will also scavenge on dead animals and eat insects, rodents, rabbits and songbirds. They are also known to kill or injure pets, especially small dogs or cats.  Coyotes have an annual home range of about 20 square kilometres
Churcher mentions that the Coyote diet consists “chiefly on rabbits and rodents, but they also consume insects, fruits and human waste.”  That being said, it is important to scoop your poop, if walking in the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, the South West Off Leash Recreation Area, or George Genereux Urban Regional Park.  Animals are also attracted to feces.

Cities are nature. “We have this idea that there’s the urban world and there’s nature. We’re the only species that looks at landscape that way,” said Dr. Eric Strauss, executive director for the Center for Urban Resilience… “We changed this landscape. It’s all still nature, it’s just not nature as we remember it.”

“Here’s what the city [of Saskatoon] recommends you do during a close encounter with a coyote:

  • Never approach the animal
  • Look for a way out
  • Be observant of the coyote’s movement
  • Act assertive, yell and wave your arms
  • Ensure the animal has an escape route and enough space to flee the situation
  • Keep pets on a leash and under control

Tips to avoid a coyote encounter in your yard:

  • Never feed coyotes or leave food waste in accessible areas
  • Do not put meat, eggs, or dairy in compost bins
  • Seal off access to decks and other sheltered spaces in your yard
  • If you feed your pets outdoors, bring the food in at night
  • Close the gate to your yard and make sure fencing is in good condition

People can call pest management at 306-975-3300 with questions and concerns.”

Coyotes play a role in biodiversity, and its an important one. Lincoln Julie, Calgary Parks

If you find an injured coyote, Mass Audubon states, remember, “sick or injured animals can be unpredictable and dangerous, especially those susceptible to the rabies virus (including coyotes). If you find a coyote in either condition stay away from it and do not attempt to handle it or move it.” “Coyotes suffer from diseases such as canine distemper, rabies, canine hepatitis, and parvo virus”. Living Sky Wildlife Rehabilitation has some excellent tips in case a wild animal is found.  For more questions call (306) 242-7177.

Coyote Watch Canada also has excellent tips for coexisting with coyotes.

“Supervise your pets and keep them under strict control. Adhering to leash by-laws, accompanying pets on walks, and not allowing them to roam is in the best interests of your pets. Our pets are at risk of many environmental dangers when they are not under our control: owls, eagles, hawks, foxes and coyotes can all prey on smaller pets. Cats are safest indoors or in secure outdoor play enclosures. Domestic dogs can be considered competition for food items at locations where humans are feeding coyotes, and coyotes may prey on small domestic animals for food or to eliminate a threat to their territory or pups.

  • Neuter your pets. Although a rare occurrence, coyotes may mate with domesticated dogs.
  • Do not approach coyotes, their dens or their pups, even if it appears the parents have abandoned them. Coyotes will do their best to avoid human contact, but may attack humans when provoked, sick or injured.
  • Teach children about wildlife and how to safely respond to a coyote (or dog) nearby.
  • Respect, compassion and education are common sense tools that nurture safe and healthy human and wildlife families.
  • Yelling in a firm voice while outdoors “Go away coyote!”, banging pots, spraying a water hose (in warmer months), throwing objects towards not at the coyote, using a shake can, popping open an umbrella can be effective deterrents to safely move a coyote away.
  • **Use hazing techniques such as shaking car keys, popping an umbrella, throwing an object in the direction of the coyote such as clumps of dirt, sticks or blow a whistle. Review and download our Keeping Coyotes Away Pamphlet Be prepared and aware of your surroundings when enjoying the outdoors. Be a good visitor “leave no trace”. Carry out leftover food, garbage and dog feces.

How to identify if a coyote is in the area?  Government of Manitoba, notes coyote sign such as coyote tracks, coyote scats, and pets that are fearful or barking uncontrollably. “Coyotes commonly howl or “yip” to communicate to each other and urinate frequently to mark their territory.” The Commonwealth of Massachusetts says, “Coyotes howl because:

  • They’re telling non-family members to stay out of their territory.
  • They’re locating their family members within their territory.
  • They’re advertising for a mate during breeding season.
  • Pups practice howling and can be especially vocal in late summer as they attempt to mimic their parents.
  • When there is a potential threat towards the pups, adult coyotes will scatter and howl in order to distract the threat away from the den site.”

“If there is an introduction of wild systems into the city, there needs to be an education that nature is harsh and one needs to be careful with it,” Susannah Drake says.“In the same way kids in the city are taught to look both ways before crossing the street, there are dangerous situations you learn about and become aware of.”

Heimbuch sums it up coyote mating season succinctly, “Coyote attacks on humans are rare, and there have been only two fatal attacks in modern history, in 1981 and 2009. Urban Coyote Research reports, “In almost a third of the reported attack cases, it was known that coyotes were being fed (either intentionally or accidentally) near the attack site. One victim was bitten while feeding a coyote and another was bitten by a coyote that was being fed by her parents.” So it appears there is often a human cause to the bites in the first place.

…So, if it helps assuage fears of neighborhood coyotes, a child is far more likely to be bitten by a domestic dog than by a coyote when out playing in the neighborhood.

That said, it is only smart to know about coyotes and their behavior so that you can continue to coexist peacefully with these wild urban residents.

Mass Audubon says, “Coyotes are wary animals who will avoid people at all costs,” and remember to never, never leave food out for coyotes, and this includes dropped dog treats, and dog feces.  Scoop your poop!

Life is as dear to a mute creature as it is to man. Just as one wants happiness and fears pain, just as one wants to live and not die, so do other creatures. ~His Holiness The Dalai Lama

If you have men who will exclude any of God’s creatures from the shelter of compassion and pity, you will have men who will deal likewise with their fellow men. ~St. Francis of Assisi

 

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

QR Code FOR PAYPAL DONATIONS to the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc.
Paypal
Payment Options
Membership : $20.00 CAD – yearly
Membership with donation : $50.00 CAD
Membership with donation : $100.00 CAD

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

“I believed that God has lent us the Earth. It belongs as much to those who come after us as to us, and it ill behooves us by anything we do or neglect, to deprive them of benefits which are in our power to bequeath.” Richard St. Barbe Baker

“Man has lost his way in the jungle of chemistry and engineering and will have to retrace his steps, however painful this may be. He will have to discover where he went wrong and make his peace with nature. In so doing, perhaps he may be able to recapture the rhythm of life and the love of the simple things of life, which will be an ever-unfolding joy to him.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker

 

Clean Up Announced!!!

Pitch In Week April 22-29, 2019 starting on Earth Day! However, the MVA city wide clean-up lasts longer than one week, how super for the city of Saskatoon
Pitch In Week April 22-29, 2019 starting on Earth Day! However, the MVA city wide clean-up lasts longer than one week, how super for the city of Saskatoon

In 2019, Earth Day is Monday, April 22

 

We need you this spring to help out, please!!!!

Pitch In Week  Monday April 22 to Monday April 29, 2019

sponsored by Tim Horton’s.  Register before March 1, 2019!!!

What a great combination, to also register and find resources at

The Great Canadian Shoreline Cleanup wherever water meets land.

Since 1981, the MVA has hosted the

City Wide Meewasin Clean up Campaign

in the spring for four weeks starting on Earth Day,

cleaning up couldn’t be easier!

 

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

QR Code FOR PAYPAL DONATIONS to the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc.
Paypal
Payment Options
Membership : $20.00 CAD – yearly
Membership with donation : $50.00 CAD
Membership with donation : $100.00 CAD

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

 

“The science of forestry arose from the recognition of a universal need. It embodies the spirit of service to mankind in attempting to provide a means of supplying forever a necessity of life and, in addition, ministering to man’s aesthetic tastes and recreational interests. Besides, the spiritual side of human nature needs the refreshing inspiration which comes from trees and woodlands. If a nation saves its trees, the trees will save the nation. And nations as well as tribes may be brought together in this great movement, based on the ideal of beautifying the world by the cultivation of one of God’s loveliest creatures – the tree.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker.

“I believed that God has lent us the Earth. It belongs as much to those who come after us as to us, and it ill behooves us by anything we do or neglect, to deprive them of benefits which are in our power to bequeath.” Richard St. Barbe Baker

Arbor Day or National Tree Day

What is the difference between Arbor day, and National Tree Day?

Does Canada celebrate both?

 

Arbor day originates in the etymology; Latin arbor, meaning tree.  On April 10, 1872 the state of Nebraska became the first state in America to celebrate Arbor Day by planting one million trees!  However, the Spanish village of Mondoñedo held the first abor plantation festival as early as 1594.  The roots of our modern “Arbor Day” was launched in 1805 in Villanueva de la Sierra, Spain.  According to the Arbor Day Foundation, countries around the world celebrate trees at various times during the year.

“By creating National Tree Day, the House has asked Canadians to spend just one day reflecting on the link between their lives and that of the tree,” said Royal Galipeau, Member of Parliament.  “Canadians will dedicate trees, plant trees, learn about trees and appreciate the impact the tree has had on Canada’s economic success as a nation.”

Canada celebrates Maple Leaf Day orNational Tree Day in the middle of National Forest Week, as Maple Leaf Day falls on the last Wednesday of September.

“The federal government is proud to help celebrate Canada’s first National Tree Day,” said the Honourable Joe Oliver, Minister of Natural Resources. “Forests are not only an important part of our heritage, they are also essential to our future. Every tree planted today helps preserve our forests for future generations”

Maple Leaf Day has its origins with Sir George W. Ross, later the Premier of Ontario, when he was Minister of Education in Ontario (1883-1899). According to the Ontario Teachers’ Manuals “History of Education” (1915), Ross established both Arbour Day and Empire Day – “the former to give the school children an interest in making and keeping the school grounds attractive, and the latter to inspire the children with a spirit of patriotism” Arbor Day  

National Tree Day.  Trees are essential to our lives.  They provide us with oxygen, clean our water, purify our air, elevate our mood and so much more. A tree can sequester 10 tonnes of carbon dioxide by the time it is 40 years old, so trees are invaluable to our battle against climate change. Not only must we take care of our forests, but we must also expand the living infrastructure within our cities.

Successive Canadian governments of all stripes have supported healthy forests, and are bringing more trees into cities. That is why Tree Canada, Canada’s leading national tree organization, has recognized the people of Canada with its coveted Eterne Award. Joyce Murray.  Open Parliament Government of Canada September 27, 2018

Whereas, the United States of America celebrates National Arbor Day on the last Friday of April, which will be April 26, 2019, though various states host their festivals according to the optimal planting time for their ecoregion.  Several Canadian provinces also plant trees, and celebrate Arbor Day as well, with a spring planting event.  Very interestingly, the United Kingdom also celebrates their National Tree Week in November, 24th November – 2nd December 2018. National Tree Week U.K. is  followed by National Tree Dressing Day on the first weekend of December. 

National Tree Dressing Day honours the life-giving blessings of trees and is based upon an ancient custom. “Trees have long been celebrated for their spiritual significance. The simplicity of tying strips of cloth or yarn to a tree is universal and timeless. The old Celtic custom of tying cloth dipped in water from a holy well to a ‘clootie tree’ echoes the practice in Japan of decorating trees with strips of white paper, or tanzaku, bearing wishes and poems. The twenty-first century trend of ‘yarn bombing’ in Europe and North America transforms the local landscape with bright fabrics and yarns, like the Buddhist tradition of tying ribbons around the trunk of the Bodhi tree in homage to Buddha, or the annual Hindu festival of Raksha Bandhan when coloured strings are tied onto trees and plants to call upon the power of nature to protect loved ones.”  Source  It’s a way to say thank you to the trees in your community.

” While Napoleon was ravaging Europe with his ambition in this village in the Sierra de Gata lived a priest, don Juan Abern Samtrés, which, according to the chronicles, “convinced of the importance of trees for health, hygiene, decoration, nature, environment and customs, decides to plant trees and give a festive air. The festival began on Carnival Tuesday with the ringing of two bells of the church, and the Middle and the Big. After the Mass, and even coated with church ornaments, don Juan, accompanied by clergies, teachers and a large number of neighbours, planted the first tree, a poplar, in the place known as Valley of the Ejido. Tree plantations continued by Arroyada and Fuente de la Mora. Afterwards, there was a feast, and did not miss the dance. The party and plantations lasted three days. He drafted a manifesto in defence of the trees that was sent to surrounding towns to spread the love and respect for nature, and also he advised to make tree plantations in their localities.”
— Miguel Herrero Uceda, Arbor Day

This Arbour Day celebration is separate from the International Forests Day, March 21, was adopted by the United Nations to raise “awareness at all levels in order to strengthen the sustainable management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests and trees outside forests for the benefit of current and future generations…[regarding] Forests and Sustainable Cities…Forests and trees store carbon, which helps mitigate the impacts of climate change in and around urban areas.” Source

World Forestry Day, March 21, was inaugurated 1971 at the 23rd General Assembly of European Confederation of Agriculture, “to increase the public awareness among communities about the values, significance and contributions of the forests to balance the life cycle on the earth…. Loss of the forests enhances the loss of inhabitant animal species to the forest. Deforestation imbalances the balance of natural climate which lead to the global warming by increasing the CO2 and decreasing the O2 percentage all across the world.”

Since 1970, Earth Day supports environmental protection,  and was supported by the  2016 acknowledging the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference historic draft climate protection treaty.  Earth Day was first celebrated on the first day of spring (northern hemisphere) March 21, 1970, however, United States Senator Gaylord Nelson initiated Earth Day on April 22 in America.  March for Science is also commemorated April 22, and the People’s Climate Mobilization follows on April 29.

Paul D. Tinari organized Canada’s Earth Day September 11, 1980 during Earth Day Week beginning Sept 6, 1980.

Trees have a way of bringing people together to celebrate a shared heritage. With over 80% of Canadians living in cities and towns, our urban forests are vital to our quality of life, and this recognition will go a long way toward ensuring that they continue to be planted and cared for in urban locations… For every person who stops and thinks about how they can help grow and maintain trees, Canada becomes a cleaner, better country.Cision Canada

The United Nations celebrates International Mother Earth Day on April 22 “to remind each of us that the Earth and its Ecosystems provide us with life and sustenance….The Earth and its ecosystems are our home. In order to achieve a just balance among the economic, social, and environmental needs of present and future generations, it is necessary to promote harmony with nature and the Earth.”

World Environment Day is celebrated June 5.

“World Environment Day reminds us that we have a global responsibility to safeguard our environment – and that each of us has a role to play to preserve and protect it.”

Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister

in 1922, Richard St. Barbe Baker began the International Tree Foundation with Forest Guides, or Forest Scouts, called the Watu wa Miti, or Men of the Trees who… “promised before N’gai, the High God, that they would protect the native forest, plant ten native trees each year, and take care of trees everywhere.”

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

QR Code FOR PAYPAL DONATIONS to the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc.
Paypal
Payment Options
Membership : $20.00 CAD – yearly
Membership with donation : $50.00 CAD
Membership with donation : $100.00 CAD

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

 

“Clearly, human pressure is exerting a sudden and cataclysmic impact on much of this province, if viewed in the time-frame of evolution and geology to which the rhythms of ecosystems are tuned. The groundswell of environmental concern taking shape among us, its citizens, results in public pressure for new and stronger strictures on human exploitation and desecration…Such action is needed as the embodiment of an ethical responsibility to the land and living things, for our own well-being as well as for that of all other species.” Theberge, 1989. P.376

“To be in a better position to help them I studied their language [Kenya’s Kikuyu people], their folklore and tribal customs, and was initiated into their secret society, an ancient institution which safeguarded the history of the past which was handed down by word of mouth through its members.

Soon I came to understand and love these people and wanted to be of service to them. They called me “Bwana M‘Kubwa,” meaning “Big Master,” but I said, “I am your M‘tumwe” (slave).” Richard St. Barbe Baker

“I believe in the Oneness of Mankind and all living things and the interdependence of each and all.” Richard St. Barbe Baker