Dutch Elm Disease

Why is the ailment afflicting elm trees called “Dutch Elm Disease?”

Well according to BioForest Technologies Inc. “a young phytopathologist from the Netherlands named Bea Schwartz first isolated a fungus from dying elms in 1921, which would give rise to the Dutch elm disease moniker. Another Dutch researcher, Christine Buisman, would also be instrumental in showing the disease was, in fact, caused by this fungus.”

Where disease is a rather broad moniker combining two phrases meaning not at ease, it makes one wonder what is it that is making elm trees not at ease?

There are two small fungus which afflict weakened, and dying elm trees. Ophiostoma ulmi and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi are the latin names for this small sac fungus which afflict the elm trees. However, it is not said and done there. There is a little beetle which thinks that this fungus is so very delicious. The The American Phytopathological Society (APS) mentions that “two beetle species spread the pathogens in North America: the smaller European elm bark beetle (Scolytus multistriatus) and the native elm bark beetle (Hylurgopinus rufipes).” The beetles fly around searching out an elm tree afflicted with the fungus on which to lay its eggs. The fungus is necessary to the Dutch Elm Beetle survival. Once the afflicted elm tree is found with the sac fungus growing upon it, the beetle lays its eggs. The eggs hatch and the larva crawl around inside the tree under the bark seeking out more of the yummy fungus, and in the process create tunnels damaging the tree further. The trees feel these larva crawling around and send out a chemical attack to stop. By the time the tree is sending out a plethora of chemical agents to mitigate the Dutch Elm Disease the leaves can be seen wilting and turning yellow at the top of the tree as they are not getting the sap they need to survive, exacerbating and quickening the death of the elm tree. The larva eventually mature into adult beetles make it up to a fork in a branch of the tree, and fly away. As the elm bark beetles make there way through the tunnel galleries, the grooves on their back pick up fungal spores. The beetles carry the fungal spores to the next dead and weakened elm tree, and the process starts again. The fungus spreads to neighbouring elms if their root systems touch underground, thereby weakening the entire grove of elms.

Woodpeckers are indeed the tree and forest surgeons. Hinterland Who’s Who written by the Environment and Climate Change Canada & Canadian Wildlife Federation state that Downy woodpeckers “help suppress bark beetle infestations. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Downy Woodpecker in eastern North America fed extensively on the elm bark beetle.”

The other thing which will help our Elm Trees is to keep it healthy. Not raking the elm tree leaves will help the tree with proper nutrients from the detritus and leaf mould, and keeping the elm tree properly watered will reduce additional stresses on it, and a healthy tree will be better able to withstand disease. The sac fungus does not thrive on a healthy Elm Tree.

Another very important aspect for Dutch Elm Disease prevention is to follow proper elm tree cutting, and pruning protocols. The City of Saskatoon and the province of Saskatchewan have great resources for expounding upon the Elm pruning ban April 1 to August 31. All Elm wood must go directly to the land fill following pruning for proper disposal.

It is very important not to help the Dutch Elm Beetle spread the fungal spores. So transporting cut Elm firewood, will mean that a person in a truck will carry the fungal spores greater distances and quicker than the small dutch elm beetle. Elm firewood, being dead elm is a great home for the sac fungus, and therefore is a great incentive to attract the Dutch Elm Beetle.

Richard St. Barbe Baker was not a tree surgeon looking for Dutch Elm Beetles, but rather he was a special kind of forester known as a silviculturist, a doctor of forests. He is responsible for planting billions of trees worldwide through groups he created and his actions. Other people were inspired by Richard St. Barbe Baker and initiated their own tree planting campaigns such as Wangari Maathai who carried on the afforestation project in the Sahara Desert.

Plans to protect air and water, wilderness and wildlife are in fact plans to protect man.”

—Stewart Udall

SaskTip.com

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park
For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
For more information:
Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits
NEW P4G District Official Community Plan
DRAFT P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits
Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SW 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map
Pinterest richardstbarbeb
Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park
Facebook: StBarbeBaker
Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Facebook: South West OLRA
Twitter: StBarbeBaker Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail / e-transfers ) Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers to the same email. Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date! Canada Helps
1./ Learn.
2./ Experience
3./ Do Something: ***
“The future of the planet concerns all of us, and all of us should do what we can to protect it. ” Wangari Maathai.
“The science of forestry arose from the recognition of a universal need. It embodies the spirit of service to mankind in attempting to provide a means of supplying forever a necessity of life and, in addition, ministering to man’s aesthetic tastes and recreational interests. Besides, the spiritual side of human nature needs the refreshing inspiration which comes from trees and woodlands. If a nations saves its trees, the trees will save the nation. And nations as well as tribes may be brought together in this great movement, based on the ideal of beautifying the world by the cultivation of one of God’s loveliest creatures – the tree.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker

Compost DED Education

The City of Saskatoon is acting on the instances of Dutch Elm Disease found in the city! An informational pamphlet about Dutch Elm Disease DED will be given to those who arrive at the compost depot with elm over the summer 2021 months! The pamphlet will illustrate the dangers to the city urban forest if elm is disposed of incorrectly, and why the guidelines are in place to prevent a pandemic from sweeping through the elms in the city. Where we, as humans, can wear facemasks as protection for the COVID-19 pandemic, the Elm trees are not quite so lucky. The Elm trees rely on humans!

The Elm bark beetle passes through the winter inside the Elm as larva and as an adult. There is no way to protect the Elms against the fungus, though birds and other insects may destroy Elm bark beetles at their various life cycles from egg to larva to beetle. Very low winter temperatures kill many Elm bark beetles. The galleries holding the beetle eggs may be so small with the diseased wood (the food of the larva) that not all eggs may develop into full grown beetles. The best way to control the spread of DED is to remove all trees or parts of trees which may become homes to the Elm Bark Beetle, its eggs and larva. Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by Ophiostoma ulmi – a member of the sac fungi (Ascomycota) – affecting elm trees, and is spread by elm bark beetles.

The Saskatoon StarPhoenix reported City finds more than 13 tonnes of improperly stored elm wood…Since it confirmed a case of Dutch elm disease in mid-September, the city issued 71 infraction notices, 46 of which contained elm firewood. In light of the Dutch Elm Disease found in the City of Saskatoon and the follow up by the City of Saskatoon staff to discover if any Elm firewood had been stored within city limits, the city is taking action at the drop off compost depots. All persons using the drop off compost depots to recycle their leaf cuttings, pruned branches and logs will still be directed that Elm must be disposed of at the city landfill. Additionally the informational pamphlet will help the Elm that is to be discarded, actually and really is thrown into the city landfill.

A note! Please pay attention to your community association neighbourhood newsletters. They announce when the community association will have a Loraas bin in your neighbourhood in the spring and/or the fall season.

“From April 1 to August 31 every year, it is illegal to prune elm trees in Saskatchewan.” The City of Saskatoon post information each year about when to prune Elm Trees (when the Elm Beetle is the least active). To identify if an Elm may be disease and infected with the fungus, please consult City of Saskatoon Tree Diseases and Pests.

As a citizen scientist there are steps you can take!

  • Do not store Elm firewood, or any Elm cuttings at all
  • Only prune Elm trees between August 31 to March 31
  • Help to identify infected trees The Government of Saskatchewan says that “DED testing is done free of charge for Saskatchewan residents”
  • Learn more about Dutch Elm Disease as it is a fungus which affects the trees. The fungus is carried from Elm tree to Elm tree by three species of Elm Bark Beetles. The fungus is carried from place to place by people transporting cut Elm or storing cut Elm.
  • Share the facebook STOP elm disease in the afforestation areas fund raiser!

Help support this fundraiser to STOP Dutch Elm Disease pandemic from entering the afforestation areas!

Always dispose of any elm wood at the City Landfill

The fundraiser will go towards vehicle mitigation barriers and park identification signage to STOP illegal motorized trespass and illegal dumping!

Please SHARE this fundraiser, taking care of trees is vitally important in this era of climate change! Protect our elms! LOOK at the George Genereux Clean UP Results!!! Please share the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. [a non profit charity] fundraiser. You can get a charitable receipt By donating to the STOP Dutch Elm Disease fundraiser, you may receive as much as 53% of the amount you donated back at tax-time.

Dutch Elm Disease can be fatal to the elm trees in the afforestation areas. SOS Trees Coalition also deals with Dutch Elm Disease, as they started out under the name of SOS Elms Coalition.

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

NEW P4G District Official Community Plan

DRAFT P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail / e-transfers )Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date! Canada Helps

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

“The future of the planet concerns all of us, and all of us should do what we can to protect it. ” Wangari Maathai.

“The science of forestry arose from the recognition of a universal need. It embodies the spirit of service to mankind in attempting to provide a means of supplying forever a necessity of life and, in addition, ministering to man’s aesthetic tastes and recreational interests. Besides, the spiritual side of human nature needs the refreshing inspiration which comes from trees and woodlands. If a nations saves its trees, the trees will save the nation. And nations as well as tribes may be brought together in this great movement, based on the ideal of beautifying the world by the cultivation of one of God’s loveliest creatures – the tree.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker

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