What is taxonomy?

How can we determine which of the roses are which in the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and George Genereux Urban Regional Park forest communities?

Part 1

What is taxonomy? Part 1 | Rosids Part 2 | genus Rosa Part 3
| Rose Species Part 4 | Rose reproduction Part 5 | Native Rose Plant Ethnobiology Part 6 | Bibliography  

Prickly Rose (Rosa Acicularlis Lindl.) the Prairie Rose (Rosa arkansana) and Wood’s Rose, or Wild Rose (Rosa woodsii) are perhaps easiest to identify in mid-June when the pink blooms appear.  These blooms last perhaps two weeks, giving way to the fruit or the red or reddish-orange rose hips, which again make this bush easy to identify. Whereas, all rose bushes have thorns, the Prickly Rose is abundant with weak thorns.

 

Prickly Rose (Rosa Acicularlis Lindl.) the Prairie Rose (Rosa arkansana)  and Wood’s Rose, or Wild Rose (Rosa woodsii) all grow well across Saskatchewan, in the quaking aspen parkland, and also the grasslands as well as the northern boreal forests.  This bush is often found where the soil has been made acidic due to the contributions of spruce or pine, and will grow in forests comprised of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), and cottonwood (Populous spp.) all of these trees making up both the afforestation areas – Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and George Genereux Urban Regional Park forest communities.

The rose bush, will make its appearance in places where rodents or other animals disturb the soil, loosening up the soil which then receives the rose seed (achene) in an area conducive to growth. Or, in fact, these animals may also be disturbing the rhizomatous roots which are laying below the soil.  Adventitious buds form on roots near the ground surface, on damaged stems (as on the stumps of cut rose shrubs), or on old roots. These roots develop into above-ground stems and leaves. A form of budding called suckering is the reproduction or regeneration of a plant by shoots that arise from an existing root system.  The rose bushes do not tolerate a closed forest canopy as they are only moderately shade tolerant.

What is the difference between scientists?

A botanist is an expert in or student of the scientific study of plants, based on the Greek root botanikos, from botanē meaning plant, and -logy from French -logie or from Greek  / medieval Latin -logia meaning the study or interest in a subject.  A biologist is a scientist who focuses on living organisms, including plants and animals from Greek bios ‘life’ + -logy.  A naturalist, on the other hand, is a person who studies or is an expert in natural history, especially a zoologist or botanist.  Historically, if one lived back in the late 14th century, the Middle English word for a “natural philosopher or scientist” was naturien instead of naturalist.

A citizen scientist is anyone who aids in the collection and analysis of data relating to the natural world, and reports them to  a collaborative project with professional scientists.  Some wonderful ways to report data from the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and George Genereux Urban Regional Park forest ecosystems, would be for citizen scientists  to make observations and send them off on their computers or by using phone apps.  iNaturalist, ebird, Bird Studies Canada, EcoSpark, eButterfly, FrogWatch, PlantWatch, Project Noah, Project BudBurst, Nature’s Notebook, LeafSnap.  The Native Plant Society of Saskatchewan has a Saskatchewan Master Naturalists program.  The Saskatoon Nature Society conducts regular field trips to connect people and nature.  Jane’s Walks and The Wild About Saskatoon Walks in the spring month of May introduce the visitor to both the afforestation areas – Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and George Genereux Urban Regional Park forest communities.

PlantWatch The PlantWatch program enables citizen scientists to get involved by recording flowering times for selected plant species and reporting these dates to researchers, who work to identify ecological changes that may be affecting our environment. By reporting on the PlantWatch species found in your community, you can help researchers discover how common plants are responding to climate change and track where changes are taking place in Canada, and at what rate.

Project BudBurst Project BudBurst is an app to receive data on the timing of leafing and flowering of trees and flowers Project BudBurst also offers climate change and phenology materials and tools

LeafSnap  The user of the LeafSnap App needs to extract the leaf and place it in a white background and then take a picture through the app to get the leaf identified automatically.

Reporting your findings on facebook, or social media, and using the hashtags #ScienceAroundMe., #RichardStBarbeBakerAfforestationArea, #GeorgeGenereuxUrbanRegionalPark, #Saskatoon, #YXEGreenStrategy are some excellent ways to track the eco-system out at the afforestation areas.

What is taxonomy?

Botanists refer to a taxonomic key produced by a taxonomist when speaking in reports, publications or at conferences about plants.

TaxonomicRanks
Taxonomic Ranks, and Binomial Name Genus and Species

“Nature produces individuals, and nothing more. She produces them in such countless numbers that we are compelled to sort them into kinds in order that we may be able to carry them in our minds. This sorting is classification—taxonomy.”  ~C.E. Bessey Though Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) may be regarded as the first ever naturalist, Theophrastus (371–287 B.C.), his pupil, is recognised as the father of Botany.  However, the starting point for modern botanical nomenclature is Linnaeus’ Species Plantarum of 1753 which featured a key event as Linnaeus adopted the system of using binomial names for plant species. Binomial nomenclature is a two-naming system featuring the first part of the name – the generic name– identifying the genus to which the plant or organism belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – continues on to identify the species.  The classification of something, living things or organisms is the science called taxonomy.  A taxonomist groups organisms into categories.  A plant taxonomist may study the origins, and the relationships between different types of roses.  Taxonomists may come up with their own system of plant taxonomy or “taxonomic system

Taxonomic_rankingBLANK
Taxonomic Chart Blank

Figure 1 Complete the Taxonomic Ranks for the Saskatchewan Wild Rose Method 1 Use the given relationships below used by botanists Method 2 Create your own Taxonomy Chart, Taxonomic Section titles, and plant names.

In Saskatchewan roses have the same taxonomy through to the genus “Rosa.”  Of all the taxonomic classifications, the clade ‘Rosids’ is the most challenging taxonomic category to describe.

  • Kingdom: Plantae.  Plantae means plants, featuring multi-cellular living things with predominantly photosynthetic cells.

    Rosales Classification according to the USDA
    Rosales Classification taxonomy key according to the USDA
  • Clade: Angiosperms. Angiosperms are plants with fruit.  Angiosperms are land plants which produce seeds within an enclosure such as a fruiting body.  Angiosperms is derived from the Greek words angeion (“case” or “casing”) and sperma (“seed”).
  • Clade: Eudicot.  Eudicots have two seed leaves which provide nutrients to the embroyo from the Greek words eu, well or good, dio two, and kotylidon seedlobe. Eudicot as a reference first proposed that there is a pair of leaves, or cotyledons, in the embryo of the seed.  Currently the classification refers to angiosperms which are not monocots.
  • Clade:  Rosids. Rosids have their own chapter: Rosids (Part 2).
  • Order: Rosales. Those rosids which are nitrogen fixing or those plants which belong to the nitrogen fixing order are given the name Rosales.
  • Family:  Rosaceae. The subfamily of rosaceae is Rosoideae, those plants with rose hips.  Rosoideae which are those genera bearing aggregate fruits that are made up of small achenes or drupelets, and often the fleshy part of the fruit  is the receptacle or the stalk bearing the carpels (female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an ovary, a stigma, and usually a style).  In taxonomy, that which separates the family Rosaceae from the order Rosales is that the plant ovaries and achenes (seeds) are hidden inside the round hypanthium.
  • Genus: Rosa. Two of the ways that the rosaceae family can be narrowed down to the genus Rosa are; if the plant features many pistils and prickly stems.  chapter: genus Rosa (Part 3).
  • Species: R. Acicularlis Lindl., R. arkansana, R. woodsii
Linnaean system of classification Biological Classification Chart
Biological Classification Chart

Figure 2 From the information above fill out the Biological classification Chart.  What happened?  Have there been changes in the Linnaean system?  Why? For extra points, how many different kingdoms are there?

In the USDA classification

  • Kingdom Plantae refers to plants.
  • Sub-Kingdom Tracheobionta are vascular plants with lignified plant tissues (called vessels or trachea) for moving water and minerals around the plant.
  • Super-division Spermatophyta are seed plants.  Seed plants are divided into two groups Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
  • Division Magnoliophyta are flowering plants.  Plants in Magnoliophyta were formerly classified as angiosperms.
  • Class Magnoliospida hold the dicot plants.
  • Sub-class Rosidae also called Rosid.
  • Order Rosales feature nitrogen fixing flowers with four or five petals and the blossoms are flat or cup-shaped. They also have fleshy fruit.

Activities and questions

  • Design, construct and evaluate the effectiveness of a taxonomic classification technique that demonstrates the scientific principles underlying the identification of plants and how to differentiate one plant from another.
  • Evaluate, compare (find the similarities) and contrast (find the differences) to weigh the effectiveness of more than one of the previously devised botanical classifications.  Debate the issue with supporting arguments pro and con.
  • What type of background in the physical sciences would a botanist or a taxonomist require?
  • Are there any biologists, or naturalists in Saskatchewan?

Bibliography

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

You Tube Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

You Tube George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

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“St. Barbe’s unique capacity to pass on his enthusiasm to others. . . Many foresters all over the world found their vocations as a result of hearing ‘The Man of the Trees’ speak. I certainly did, but his impact has been much wider than that. Through his global lecture tours, St. Barbe has made millions of people aware of the importance of trees and forests to our planet.” Allan Grainger

“The science of forestry arose from the recognition of a universal need. It embodies the spirit of service to mankind in attempting to provide a means of supplying forever a necessity of life and, in addition, ministering to man’s aesthetic tastes and recreational interests. Besides, the spiritual side of human nature needs the refreshing inspiration which comes from trees and woodlands. If a nation saves its trees, the trees will save the nation. And nations as well as tribes may be brought together in this great movement, based on the ideal of beautifying the world by the cultivation of one of God’s loveliest creatures – the tree.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker.

“In the stillness of the mighty woods, man is made aware of the divine”
Richard St Barbe Baker

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Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx)

 

A ramet is an individual plant belonging to a clone. The botanical term for a sucker is ramet.   The clone originates from one ortet.  An ortet is the original or mother plant.  A clonal colony is also referred to as a genet.  A genet is the group of genetically identical individuals, such as plants, fungi, or bacteria, that have grown in a given location, all originating vegetatively, not sexually, from a single ancestor.  In plants, an individual in such a population is referred to as a ramet.  All plants (ramets) reproduced asexually from a common ancestor (ortet) and have identical genotypes which means it is an exact clone or perfect copy of the original ortet. A genotype is the genetic constitution of an individual organism.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx)
The Trembling Aspen May 25, 2019

Tomáš Herben of the Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University and at the Institute of Botany, Czech Academy of Science relates rhizomes to clonal growth.  Rhizome is from both Latin and Greek root rhizoma meaning “mass of tree roots”, and from the root rhizoun meaning “cause to strike root, root into the ground” and from the Green rhiz meaning “root” and -ome.  In botany, rhizome is a horizontal, underground plant stem which is able to produce the shoot and root systems of a new plant.  Duana A. Pelzer, also states that “Aspen (Populus tremuloides) dominates the southern treeline in western Canada, has long‐lived below ground connections between mother and daughter ramets, and reproduces vegetatively via resprouting rhizomes.”  The Trembling Aspen clone can be called rhizomatous.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) May 25, 2019
The Trembling Aspen  May 25, 2019

Scientists, foresters or gardeners can practice vegetative propagation using rooted cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture.  In the case of the Trembling Aspen, the original plant is also called the ortet.

The Trembling Aspen root suckers are produced from meristems featured in the cork cambium of the root systems.   The Cambium is a layer of tissue between the wood and the bark from the Latin cambium meaning “exchange” and Latin cambiare “change.  The cork cambrium, also called a phellogen, produces an outer protective barrier or corky tissue, and an inner phelloderm- a thin, food conducting vascular tissue.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) May 25, 2019
The Trembling Aspen tree bark May 25, 2019

The roots twist, coil and undulate underground.  Growing sideways, laterally,  they do not reach lower than 40 cm (16 inches) below the surface of the soil and most often stay within  2 to 10 cm (1 to 4 in) from the soil surface.

A meristem is a collection of cells forming plant tissue in the zones where plant growth can take place.  These undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells) have the capability for cell division, promoting growth and change. Meristem comes from the Greek root “merizein” which means “to divide” which is the main function of the merismatic cells, to change and divide thus providing new growth for the tree.  Differentiated plant cells cannot produce new growth, as they cannot change.

The shoots develop following apical dominance.  Apical dominance occurs when the shoot apex inhibits the growth of lateral buds so that the plant may grow vertically upwards towards the light. These shoots however, lie in wait, remaining dormant due to hormones called “Auxin” expressed by the main Trembling Aspen clone.  High soil temperature, depletion of carbohydrate  food sources, or excess soil moisture may inhibit the formation of suckers.  If the Aspen Grove is disturbed, the hormonal balance is upset within the Trembling Aspen grove.  There is a decrease in Auxin allowing meristem to develop into buds, then into shoots above ground, finally developing fully producing ramets which can be visibly seen above ground as part of the Trembling Aspen grove.  Suckers originate after disturbances such as clearcutting, girdling, tree defoliation or fire.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) May 25, 2019
The Trembling Aspen Dioecious Catkin or Ament May 25, 2019

When the suckers start to form, the parent root changes.  The suckering rhizomatous root system has four parts:

  1. The root collar, stump or root cap
  2. The distal parent root
  3. The proximal parent root
  4. The adventitious roots

The root collar is the underground area of the Trembling Aspen sucker where it adjoins the stem.  This root collar is the protective layer, so that apical meristem (upward changing new growth) is not affected by rocks, dirt or pathogens (germs.)  The sucker roots and the parent roots cannot be distinguished from each other at the root collar, root cap or stump.

The distal parent root grows quite large to accommodate the new sucker formation.  The distal parent root fills with juicy sap, and is quite succulent and tender. Distal means situated on the outside edge away from the point of attachment to the parent.

The proximal root which is on the close side of the root collar, or stump formation.  Proximal means to be on the nearest to the point of attachment.

The adventitious roots of the newly initiated root suckers reveal growth downwards on the distal end of the roots reaching down to the root cambium of the Trembling Aspen clone or grove.  Adventitious means formed accidentally or in an unusual anatomical position.  These sucker roots will rely on the parent root for water and nutrients for the first few years.  In some cases the suckers rely on the parent roots for more than 20 years.  This interplay between parent root and ramet gives the sucker a distinct advantage over Aspen seedlings and other species arising on the forest floor.

Whereas shoots arising inside the meristem are one way to give rise to shoots as above, there are also shoots which arise from the exterior surface of Aspen roots from pre-existing primordia.  It is believed that these primordia arise from injury or disturbance to the root system, perhaps by a grazing animal.   Primordia comes from the Latin root prīmōrdiālis which is the earliest stage of development of the organism.

Root sprouting is the most commonly seen means of reproduction for the Trembling Aspen.  This is referred to as vegetative asexual reproduction.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx)
The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) Leafy branchlet, Female Ament or catkin, Young Male Ament or catkin, Fruit, Floral Bract.

A Trembling Aspen grove or stand of trees is connected underground by this common root system originating from the ortet.  Each Aspen Clone is dioecious.  One Aspen stand of trees may be composed of a mosaic of clones with their roots interspersed with each other.  Dioecious means that there are distinct male and female organisms, or boy and girl clones.  A stamen is the pollen producing male organ of the flower.  Pistils arise on the flowers of the female Trembling Aspen stands, and feature a base ovary, a style or pillar which extends from the ovary to the stigma. The stigma is sticky enabling it to capture the pollen from the male Trembling Aspen clone.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) A Dioecious Catkin or Ament
The Trembling Aspen  Dioecious Catkin or Ament

A Trembling Aspen feature aments, also referred to as catkins.  Each catkin bears many tiny dense flowers.  The name catkin comes from the German root “kätzchen,” or in Dutch “katteken” meaning kitten.  The  aments look like the furry tail of a kitten. The catkins can be anywhere from 1 to 8 cm in length (1-1/2” – 3”) The flowers with red stigmas are female flowers.  The flowers bearing black, dark anthers are male flowers.  The seeds will spread in the wind across distances of 500 meters (1,600 feet) up to several kilometers in heavy winds. The seeds are plumose, which means having many fine filaments or branches which give a feathery appearance.  Seedlings have barriers to establishment because early spring rainfall in the semi-arid prairie regions may be followed by a dry period ~ killing newly germinated seedlings.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) A Dioecious Catkin or Ament
The Trembling Aspen  Dioecious Catkin or Ament

Trembling Aspen will hybridize, or cross with other species of poplar trees (Populus)

The extent of a single Trembling Aspen clone of trees can be determined by several features; morphology, and phenology.  These two methods bring in the observation of the leaf size and shape, the character and colour of the bark, and the changes in the season.  Morphological analysis is the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features such as the outward appearance of the shape, structure, colour, pattern and size of the visible aspects.  Morphology has as its roots the Greek word, morphé “form” and logos “the study of.”  The study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors (such as elevation) is the science referred to as phenology.  Phenology means the study of the influence of climate on recurring natural phenomena, and is derived from phainō, which is Greek for “to show, to bring to light, make to appear” and logos.

Taking the observations one step further would be to employ a procedure called digital morphometrics.  This digital approach utilizing scanned leaf images carefully tracking the location and statistics of each leaf, and comparing the digital scans of each leaf recording the analysis and observation of the morphology of each digital leaf scan.  Specific and unique clone signatures appear under the observation of discernible patterns.

Aspens feature leaf dimorphism which arise from two types of leaflets, featuring short fixed shoot (stem) growth, and long free shoot  growth.  Short shoots can only produce embroynic early leaves, and are the very first set of leaves which appear in the spring from the winter bud.  Embroyo is from the Greek embryon, “a young one”, or “one that grows at an early stage of development.”  This is referred to as the spring flush.  The first late leaves are also present in the winter bud, but they are arrested primordia or stopped at the beginning.  Primordia comes from primus meaning ”first” and ordior “to begin”.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) Autumn colour of foliage
The Trembling Aspen Autumn foliage

Lateral long shoots may produce “early” or “late” leaves.  The fact that the long shoots can produce two types of leaves means that they are called heterophyllous stems or shoots.  Heterophyllous meaning having two different kinds of leaves on the same stem comes from the Greek root heteros meaning “other”, and phyllon, “leaf”.  Late leaves have more variety in their shape than the early leaves.  Gland-tipped teeth are featured around the leaf margins on late leaves only.

A Trembling Aspen Clone leaf flush will occur at the same time because clones share the same genotype.  Likewise, since the Trembling Aspen genet is all one clone, the entire genet will change colour all at once in the autumn.

Scientists have studied how to differentiate one clone of Trembling Aspens from another, and there is much discussion and preferences stated on the criteria and methods used.  Hana Jelı´nkova et al have determined that finding the unique signature morphological traits to be superior to the use of spring phenology for successful analysis.

Spring phenology is more accurate than autumn phenological changes according to Michael Grant, and  J.M.I. McGrath et al wrote that the phenology during spring flush showed a variety in morphology depending upon climate change variations.  Both first and second leaf flushes, and their characteristics (morphology) were studied by Samuel B. St. Clair’s team.  Defoliation of the leaves by insects, may require the trees to flush out a second time, as would drought and temperature extremes such as a late spring frost causing damage and defoliation of the first flush. Defoliation is to destroy or cause widespread loss of leaves.

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) May 25, 2019
The Trembling Aspen Leaflets and Dioecious Catkin or Ament May 25, 2019

The size and shape of leaves showed a variety between Trembling Aspen groves depending upon if the trees were in an area of elevated oxygen or Carbon Dioxide. In an interesting data collection, Reimo Lutter et al studied spring and autumn phenology on the Aspen tree from one year to the next, and found that the growing season has been lengthening.

“The timing of bud break and bud set represents events in survival and growth, discernment of these mechanisms and their interactions with climatic variables is a key to understand the consequences of the projected climate change for Populus forests”(Sivadasan, 2017). Leaf phenology has been shifting in response to earlier leaf flushing due to warm winters in relation to climate change state Yongshuo et al. Now then, Joyce G. Greene suggested that it would be wise to look at six different features to seperate Aspen clones;

  1. “Sex
  2. Time of leafing, and of leaf fall
  3. Spring and Autumn leaf colour
  4. Shape and Size of leaves,
  5. Leave serration
  6. Pubescence of dormant buds.”(DeByle, 1985)

Burton V. Barnes developed another set of criteria for distinguishing clones, by season and in order of usefulness.

All Seasons

  • Bark

1. Texture

  1. Color
  • Stem Characteristics
  1. Form
  2. Branching habit (angle, length, and internode length)
  • Susceptibility to injury
  1. Sunscald
  2. Frost crack
  3. Insect and disease injury Miscellaneous
  4. Self-pruning
  5. Galls ~ Plant galls are abnormal swelling outgrowth of plant tissues caused by various parasites, from viruses, fungi and bacteria, to other plants, insects and mites.
  • Spring
  1. Sex
  2. Time of flowering, and flower characteristics
  3. Time, color, and rate of leaf flushing
  • Summer
    1. Leaf shape (width : length ratio), color, and size
    2. Shape of leaf blade base
    3. Leaf margin; number, size, and shape of teeth
    4. Shape of leaf tip
    5. Leaf rust infection
  • Autumn
    1. Leaf color
    2. Time and rate of leaf fall”

(DeByle, 1985)

Note: Pages 149-152 of  Norbert V DeByle book features an appendix entitled, Wild Mammals and Birds Found in Aspen and Aspen-Conifer Mixed Forests of Western United States and Adjacent Canada.

Article copyright Julia Adamson

The Trembling Aspen is also referred to as the Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) Autumn colour of foliage
The Trembling Aspen  Autumn foliage

Citizen Science:

Use these tools to track the morphology and the phenology of the Trembling Aspens out at Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, and in the George Genereux Urban Regional park.  There is more than one Trembling Aspen stand in both the afforestation greenspaces.

Nature’s Notebook

iNaturalist

Project Budburst

CoCoRahs Rain, hail, snow network

International Drought Experiment

Leafsnap

A great way to engage in citizen science at the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, and in the George Genereux Urban Regional park is to post your images on their facebook pages!

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Questions:

  1.  Is it easy or difficult to determine how the Trembling Aspen clone groves are distinct from each other in the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, and in the George Genereux Urban Regional park?  Can this interesting experiment to study morphology and phenology in relation to clonal colonies be repeated to determine where one genet begins and another ends?  How many female genets are there?  How many male genets?  How many Trembling Aspen groves are mixed mosaics of both female and male clones?
  1. What is the role of Auxin?
  1. Have you seen Heterophyllous long stem shoots?
  1. What colour is the bark of the Trembling Aspen?
  1. What colour is the Trembling Aspen leaf in the autumn?
  1. What is a catkin?
  1. What time of year would it be best to see a catkin – spring, summer, autumn or winter?
  1. What does dioecious mean?
  1. What is the difference between stoloniferous roots and those which are rhizomatous?
  1. What is an ortet, and what is a ramet? Are they related to each other?
  1. How do Trembling Aspens propagate?
  1. What colour are Trembling Aspen stigmas? What colour are Trembling Aspen anthers?
  1. What does plumose mean?
  1. What does morphology mean?
  1. What is phenology?
  1. Would you prefer to use phenology or morphology to study an Trembling Aspen stand of trees to determine if it is a mosaic, or a male clone or a female clone?
  1. What upsets the Trembling Aspen’s hormonal balance?
  2. How can studying phenology with citizen science lay the methodology for observing the effects of climate change?

Curriculum:

Grade 1 LT1.1, Grade 3 PL3.1, Grade 6 DL6.2 ,Grade 9 RE9.3, Grade 11 ES20‐SDS1, ES20‐ES1, ES20‐TE2

Additionally, field tours are presented at the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and at George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Free Printed Resources are available during field tours.

Bibliography

Ahmad, Muhammad Salehuddin; Hasim, Nor Wahidah (2019), Plant Tissues Meristem, Scribd, retrieved May 25, 2019

Barnes, Burton V. 1969. Natural variation and delinea- tion of clones of Populus tremuloides and P. gran- didentata in northern lower Michigan. Silvae Genetica 18:130-142

Basham, J.T. (1993), Trembling Aspen Quality in Northern Ontario – Various Aspects of Decay and Stain Studies and their Management Implications (PDF), Forestry Canada. Ontario Region. Great Lakes Forestry Centre. Information Report 0-X-421, retrieved May 25, 2019 

DeByle, Norbert V.; Winokur, Robert P. (August 1985), (PDF), United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. General Technical Report RM-119. https://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr119.pdf, retrieved May 25, 2019

Grant, M. & Mitton, J. (2010) Case Study: The Glorious, Golden, and Gigantic Quaking Aspen. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):40

Herben, Tomáš (September 2001), Rhizome: a model of clonal grow (PDF), Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University and at the Institute of Botany, Czech Academy of Science, retrieved May 25, 2019

Hunter, Baye, Trembling aspen Peuplier faux-tremble Populus tremuloides Michx, Canadian Tree Tours, retrieved May 25, 2019 

Jelı´nkova; Tremblay, Francine; DesRochers, Annie (November 15, 2013), The use of digital morphometrics and spring phenology for clone recognition in trembling aspen (populus tremuloides michx.) and its comparison to microsatellite markers, ÓSpringer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Lutter, Reimo; Tullus, Arvo; Tullus, Tea; Tullus, Hardi (December 2016), Spring and autumn phenology of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) genotypes of different geographic origin in hemiboreal Estonia§, New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science For. Sci. (2016) 46: 20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40490-016-0078-7, retrieved May 25, 2019

Mayer, Amy (01 March 2010), Phenology and Citizen Science: Volunteers have documented seasonal events for more than a century, and scientific studies are benefiting from the data, BioScience, Volume 60, Issue 3, March 2010, Pages 172–175, https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2010.60.3.3, retrieved May 25, 2019

McGrath, JMI; Karnosky, DF; Ainsworth, EA (jULY 21 2009), Spring leaf flush in aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones is altered by long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone concentration., Environ Pollut. 2010 Apr;158(4):1023-8. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2009.07.004. Epub 2009 Jul 21., retrieved May 25, 2019 

Peltzer, Duane A (2019), Does clonal integration improve competitive ability? A test using aspen (Populus tremuloides [Salicaceae]) invasion into prairie, American Journal of Botany Volume 89, Issue 3 Botanical Society of America, retrieved May 25, 2019 

Schier, George A (May 29, 1972), Origin and Development of Aspen Root Suckers, U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Intermountain and Range Experiment Station, Ogden Utah, retrieved May 25, 2019

Sivadasan, Unnikrishnan; Randriamanana, Tendry; Chenhao, Cao; Virjamo, Virpi; Nybakken, Line; Julkunen‐Tiitto, Riitta (October 7 2017), Effect of climate change on bud phenology of young aspen plants (Populus tremula. L), Ecol Evol. 2017 Oct; 7(19): 7998–8007. Published online 2017 Sep 1. doi: 10.1002/ece3.3352, retrieved May 25, 2019

St. Clair, Samuel B.; et al. (October 1, 2009), Altered leaf morphology, leaf resource dilution and defense chemistry induction in frost-defoliated aspen (Populus tremuloides), Tree Physiology, Volume 29, Issue 10, October 2009, Pages 1259–1268, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpp058 Published: 01 October 2009, retrieved May 25, 2019 

Yongshuo, S.H. Fu; et al. (May 20, 2014), Effect of climate change on bud phenology of young aspen plants (Populus tremula. L), PNAS May 20, 2014 111 (20) 7355-7360; first published May 5, 2014 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1321727111, retrieved May 25, 2019

SPECIES: Populus tremuloides, Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) Index of Species Information Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory, 2018, December 4, retrieved May 25, 2019 

St. Clair, Samuel B.; Monson, Steven D.; Smith, Eric A.; Cahill, David G.; Calder, William J. (October 1, 2009), Altered leaf morphology, leaf resource dilution and defense chemistry induction in frost-defoliated aspen (Populus tremuloides), Tree Physiology, Volume 29, Issue 10, October 2009, Pages 1259–1268, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpp058, retrieved May 25, 2019

“Children’s experience with the natural world seems to be overlooked to a large extent in research on child development, but it would be interesting to examine children’s early experiences with nature and follow how those experiences in nature and follow how those experiences influence the child’s long-term comfort with and respect for the natural world ~ comfort and respect…Given the power of nature to calm and soothe us in our hurried lives, it also would be interesting to study how a family’s connection to nature influences the general quality of family relationships. Speaking from my own personal experience, my own family’s relationships have been nourished over years through shared experiences in nature ~ from sharing our toddler’s wonder upon turning over a rock and discovering a magnificent bug the size of a mouse, to paddling our old canoe down a nearby creek during the children’s school years, to hiking the mountains.” ~ Martha Farrell Erickson

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

“Healing the broken bond between children and nature may seem to be an overwhelming, even impossible task. But we must hold the conviction that the direction of this trend can be changed, or at least slowed. The alternative to holding and acting on that belief is unthinkable for human health and for the natural environment. The environmental attachment theory is a good guiding principle: attachment to land is good for child and land.” ~ Richard Louv

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

You Tube Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

You Tube George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

QR Code FOR PAYPAL DONATIONS to the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc.
Paypal
Payment Options
Membership : $20.00 CAD – yearly
Membership with donation : $50.00 CAD
Membership with donation : $100.00 CAD

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

“They recognize that while knowledge about nature is vital; passion is the long-distance fuel for the struggle to save what is left of our natural heritage and ~ through an emerging green urbanism ~ to reconstitute lost land and water. Passion does not arrive on videotape or on a CD; passion is personal. Passion is lifted from the earth itself by the muddy hands of the young; it travels along grass-stained sleeves to the heart. If we are going to save environmentalism and the environment, we must also save an endangered indicator species: the child in nature.”~ Richard Louv.

Afforestation Area Mammals

In the city of Saskatoon, the George Genereux Urban Regional Park and the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area are great places to learn and experience nature education.  The semi wilderness habitat makes great homes for animals.  What do visitors of the afforestation areas need to know when visiting the homes of these residents?

White-tailed Deer Fawn. Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area. Saskatoon, SK, CA
White-tailed Deer Fawn. Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area. Saskatoon, SK, CA

 

Why do deer and moose appreciate the George Genereux Urban Regional Park and the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area in Saskatoon?

An animal that feeds on plants is referred to as an herbivore. There are many different kinds of herbivorous mammals which frequent the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and George Genereux Urban Regional Park. The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Moose (Alces alces) are among the herbivourous mammals of the afforestation areas.

How are these two deers recognized?  Mule deer have larger ears than the White-tailed deer, however, that feature may only help with binoculars.  There is another way to make identification.

When alarmed, a mule deer will run with a bounce referred to as stotting (also called pronking or pronging). The deer literally springs into the air, lifting all four feet off the ground simultaneously.

A white-tailed deer, will show, or flash its white tail when alarmed. This alarm response is called “Tail flare” which is used by all deer, though more visible to humans for the white-tailed deer species. The flashing tail alerts all of the herd to danger. The flashing tail held up while the herd is fleeing is a very easy target for the fawns to follow through forest thickets and heavy brush so it does not get lost.

 

A moose is recognized by its distinctive shape with features such as its larger size, a hump on its back and the rounded nose which make it easy to distinguish a moose from a deer. The horns on a bull moose are very distinct from the horns of a deer stag. A baby moose is a calf, a male moose is called a bull, a female moose is called a cow. A male deer is called stag or buck, a female deer is called doe or hind, and a young deer is called fawn, kid or calf.

Deer and moose are digrastic animals, which means that they have a unique pair of muscles under their jaw which act to open and close their mouth. One unique thing about all deer species, is that there is a lack of teeth in their front upper jaw. When looking in the habitat for evidence of deer or moose, search for a ragged edge on twigs which show signs of damage. Be aware of the height of the twigs off the ground, and the time of the year when you think these animals may be browsing on trees.

Another way to identify a habitat in which deer or moose call their home is to be aware of their droppings or “Scat.” During the summer months, a moose may leave piles which resemble cow droppings. In the winter a moose the scat changes to long round pellets larger than those of a deer or a rabbit. Deer usually have piles of black to dark brown pellets. If the animals are near a good water source, their scat may clump. Deer pellets are about the size of chocolate covered raisins. Rabbit scat is smaller, and very round, Moose scat is larger, elongated and bigger than chocolate covered almonds.

To help in the identification of wildlife in George Genereux Urban Regional Park and the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, also look for tracks (footprints) in the soil, or in the snow. Freshly fallen snow, makes it easy to see animal tracks. Moose have cloven hooves longer than 18 centimetres (7 inches). Cloven means split or divided in two. Deers also have split hooves, though the tracks are much smaller. A deer track is 4 – 7.5 cm (1-1/2 to 3 inches) in length. Deers are also much smaller in mass, so the depression in the soil or snow is lighter than the deep depression made by a heavy moose.

 

Which are human, deer and rabbit tracks in the above images?

Moose are solitary animals, but White-tailed deers live together in herds. There are two types of herds for the White-tailed deer community. The does and fawns herd together, and the bucks herd together, except during the mating season. Mule deers will come together as a united herd, males and females until spring. In the spring, Mule deer adopt behaviors similar to the herding patterns of White-tailed deer. The does and fawns will stay together to seek protective habitats, and males will take the risk of being in sight of predators, and search out rich, abundant food sources.

 

If you see long grasses flattened, or a depression in the fresh snow, which are about 1.2 meters (four feet) in diameter, then that is likely where a moose may have lain down to rest.  Deers also spend 70% of their time lying down.

These animals ~deer and moose~ are also referred to as ruminants. Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. The process, which takes place in the front part of the digestive system and therefore is called foregut fermentation, typically requires the fermented ingesta (known as cud) to be regurgitated and chewed again. The process of rechewing the cud to further break down plant matter and stimulate digestion is called rumination. These animals gather their food quickly, and later find a place to rest safe from predators. It is when they are in their safe place that they can regurgitate their food and re-chew it fully.

The Trembling Aspen is the preferred food of deer, though they will search out the “Balm of Gilead” from the Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera). Balm of Gilead is made from the resinous gum of the Balsam Poplar.  Deer will only resort to eating the buds of the Colorado Blue Spruce (Picea pungens) if they are starving, and in desperate circumstances.

The diet of the deers does vary. When foliage is green during the late spring and summer, deers will turn to eating grasses, sedges, winter cereals and other forbs. A forb is a flowering plant other than a grass. Crops, leaves, tender twigs, and buds are also mainstays. As the seasons change, deers will turn to cut alfalfa hay fields in the autumn. Deers rely almost exclusively on twigs and buds throughout the winter, and into early spring choosing Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides), Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), Willow (‎Salix; ‎L.), Western Snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis), and Prickly Rose (Rosa acicularis).

Just as the deer diet varies through the seasons, so too does the diet of the moose. Summer provides catkins, leaves, tall grasses bark, pine cones, twigs and buds of trees and shrubs. Winter food is much harder to forage (forage means to search widely for food). Moose will resort to willow bushes and woody plants.

Fawns are born between the middle of May to the end of June. Deers will leave their fawns alone in order to feed. However, the doe is usually within 90 meters of where she leaves her fawn. If the doe leaves the fawn by itself, if there are any predators in the area, the predators follow the scent of the doe, and the chances of survival for the fawn increases. The doe knows there is little chance that predators will find her fawn, because she attends to the grooming of her fawn which means that there is little scent on her little fawn. The doe returns at sunrise or sunset to check on their offspring. The doe will make the decision to move her fawn, or feed them at that site. Usually the fawn is left concealed in a thicket of tall grass.

Moose calves are also born in the spring. A calf can walk from the first day that they are born, and they stay with the cow for their first year.  The mating season of the moose takes place in September and October, during these months moose may become more aggressive.  However, generally speaking, Moose are docile towards humans.  Moose have a better sense of hearing and sense of smell than humans, and a poorer sense of sight.   Never approach a moose, but observe from a safe distance.

Deers require trees and shrubs for protection, as the open prairie does not afford them shelter from the elements nor do the prairie grasslands provide enough cover to hide from their predators.

Article copyright Julia Adamson

Questions

What is the most interesting thing about deers?  About moose?

When walking through the George Genereux Urban Regional Park and the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is it easy or hard to find out if deer or moose are there? Is it easier in the summer or the winter months? Why or why not?

What should humans do if they found a fawn in the George Genereux Urban Regional Park or the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? Is it important to let others know about animal behaviour and habitats? Why?

What do moose and deer like the best about the George Genereux Urban Regional Park and the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Areas? Why?

What do you know about the mating season of deer and moose? Would you want to meet a deer or a moose during mating season? Why or why not?

If you compare your diet to the diet of the deer and moose, what benefits do deer and moose derive from the wetlands?

Do humans chew their cud like a deer or moose? Why or why not?

Are Moose calves, or Deer fawns larger?

What impact to domesticated dogs have on the habitat of deers and moose?  What impact does the addition of the human footprint in an eco-system have on the habitat of deers and moose?

What is the difference between the antlers of a bull moose and a deer buck?

Would you sight a deer or a moose in a tree? Would a deer or moose burrow into the ground? Would living underwater in the wetlands be a suitable habitat for deer or moose? Why or why not?

If you were to create a woodland mammal what would it look like? What would your animal eat? Why?

Curriculum:

Saskatchewan Curriculum Study
Kindergarden LTK.1, MOK.1
Grade One LT1.1
Grade Two AN 2.1, AN2.2, AN2.3

Additionally, field tours are presented at the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area and at George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Free Printed Resources are available during field tours.

Bibliography

Baby Deer, The Wildlife Center of Virginia, retrieved 2019-05-17

Bradford, Alina (November 13, 2014). “Moose: Facts About the Largest Deer”. https://www.livescience.com/27408-moose.html. Live Science.

Bryson, Jennifer (2015). “Scat Identification. A Visual Aid to Scat Identification” (PDF). Think Trees. Manitoba Envirothon. Retrieved November 29, 2008.

Chaney Chaney, Professor of Tree Physiology, William R. (8/2003), Why Do Animals Eat the Bark and Wood of Trees and Shrubs? (PDF), Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, retrieved 2019-05-17

Curtis, Paul D; Sullivan, Kristi L. (2001), White-Tailed Deer (PDF), Wildlife Damage Management Fact Sheet Series Cornell Cooperative Extension Cornell Cooperative Extension, by Cornell University, retrieved 2019-05-17

DEER! – Don’t touch that baby!, Deer-Forest Study The Pennsylvania State University, May 5, 2015, retrieved 2019-05-17

Egbert, Rathiha (July 3, 2006). “Moose tracks Largest of the deer family, Alces alces is a surprisingly tricky ungulate to track”. Canadian Geographic. Canadian Geographic Enterprises. Retrieved May 5, 2019.

A Field Guide to Whitetail Communication – Whitetails Unlimited (PDF), Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and Whitetails Unlimited, Inc, 2006, retrieved 2019-05-17

Forest Foods Deer Eat, Department of Natural Resources Michigan, 2019, retrieved 2019-05-17

Geist, Valerius (2019). “Mule deer mammal”. https://www.britannica.com/animal/mule-deer. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

How do deer survive winter eating twigs?, Naturally North Idaho, December 19, 2014, retrieved 2019-05-17

“Identifying Brown or Black Droppings”. http://icwdm.org/Inspection/BlackBrownDroppings.aspx. Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management. 2015.

“Moose Facts for Kids”. http://naturemappingfoundation.org/natmap/facts/moose_k6.html. Washington NatureMapping Animal Facts for Kids.

Pasture and Forage for White-Tailed Deer, Government of Saskatchewan Business >> Agriculture Natural Resources and Industry >> Agribusiness Farmers and Ranchers>> Elk and Deer, retrieved 2019-05-17

Recognising types of mammal damage to trees and woodland, Forest Research UK Government, 2019, retrieved 2019-05-17

Vikki, Simons-Krupp, Understanding Deer, Santa Cruz CA Native Animal Rescue, retrieved 2019-05-17

Wilderness Dave (November 29, 2008). “Moose Scientific Name: Alces alces”. http://www.wildernessclassroom.com/wilderness-library/moose/. Wilderness Classroom.

Wilderness Dave. “White-Tailed Deer”. http://www.wildernessclassroom.com/wilderness-library/white-tailed-deer/. Wilderness Classroom.

 

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

You Tube Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

You Tube George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

QR Code FOR PAYPAL DONATIONS to the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc.
Paypal
Payment Options
Membership : $20.00 CAD – yearly
Membership with donation : $50.00 CAD
Membership with donation : $100.00 CAD

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

 

“ “We forget that we owe our existence to  the presence of Trees.   As far as forest  cover goes, we have never been in such a  vulnerable position as we are today.  The  only answer is to plant more Trees – to  Plant Trees for Our Lives.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker.

“The science of forestry arose from the recognition of a universal need. It embodies the spirit of service to mankind in attempting to provide a means of supplying forever a necessity of life and, in addition, ministering to man’s aesthetic tastes and recreational interests. Besides, the spiritual side of human nature needs the refreshing inspiration which comes from trees and woodlands. If a nation saves its trees, the trees will save the nation. And nations as well as tribes may be brought together in this great movement, based on the ideal of beautifying the world by the cultivation of one of God’s loveliest creatures – the tree.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker.

“I believed that God has lent us the Earth. It belongs as much to those who come after us as to us, and it ill behooves us by anything we do or neglect, to deprive them of benefits which are in our power to bequeath.” Richard St. Barbe Baker

 

 

 

 

Watch for flagging and staining

Protect Your Elm Trees:

Don’t Prune From April 1 to August 31

The Elm Bark Beetles, Hylurgopinus rufipes (Eichhoff), shows an attack as red sawdust appears on the bark of the elm tree indicating the presence of small round holes where the beetles enter.  Another sign of Dutch Elm disease occurs in July, “Flagging” manifests as yellow, curling leaves and wilting foliage, and defoliation in the crown of the tree.  These little insects may carry the Dutch elm disease from a diseased tree to a healthy one.  “Staining “ will show evidence of red streaks through the sapwood in infected twigs.  These little beetles can overwinter in the outer bark of the living elm, or survives as larvae inside the bark of a dead elm. “Dutch elm disease is a fungal disease that blocks trees’ water systems, killing them within one to two years.” Star Phoenix  

Elm bark beetles are attracted to weak, and sickly trees.  “Dying branches on an elm increase the chances that a beetle, possibly carrying the DED fungus, will make its way to  your tree.”  Fact Sheet # 3 Give your elm trees a healthy foundation with watering and retaining leaves for fertilizer at the base of the tree.

“The most effective management strategy for the elm bark beetle is to deprive it of its breeding habitat. This involves keeping elm trees healthy and removing dead and dying branches. It is necessary to dispose of any branches or wood from a fallen elm tree and either remove the stump or render it uninhabitable. Under no circumstances should elm wood be left lying around or stored for firewood or other purposes.” City of Saskatoon

“If someone brought in infected wood that had the beetle in the wood, that beetle would fly over top of a healthy tree and start to go into that healthy tree spreading the disease.” Michelle Chartier, Superintendent of Urban Forestry and Pest Management. CBC News

Tree banding is a preventative measure (so that the species which travels down the trunk of the tree to overwinter under the bark at the base of a live elm cannot make its downward journey.  For this method to be effective, the band must be placed on the Elm tree by late September, and should stay on the tree until spring), similar to the practice applied for cankerworms.

American elm Ulmus americana is the primary host tree for the native elm bark beetle Hylurgopinus rufipes. Siberian elm Ulmus laciniata is the native host tree species for the Smaller European elm bark beetle Scolytus multistriatus in the United States.
“After the beetle feeds in a tree infected with Dutch Elm Disease, the fungus spores attach to the back of the beetle, causing it to infect the next healthy trees.

An elm tree in Regina had to be removed last year due to DED and the city has had to remove 94 trees since the disease was first detected in 1981.”

“Saskatoon recorded its first case of DED in July 2015.“Global News

In the afforestation area, and across Saskatchewan, an Elm tree pruning ban is in effect between April 1 to August 31.  The elm beetles are the most active during these months, and pruning the Elm tree during this time frame will increase the chance of infection.  The newly created cut attracts the elm beetles.

Do not store, transport or use Elm Wood as in firewood or for other purposes.  Report any Elm trees with signs of elm beetle distress to 306-975-2890.  Only dispose of elm wood at the City of Saskatoon Landfill and never ever at a compost site.

“SOS Elms Coalition is concerned about the health of Saskatchewan’s community tree populations, in particular the threat of Dutch Elm Disease.”

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

You Tube Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

You Tube George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

QR Code FOR PAYPAL DONATIONS to the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc.
Paypal
Payment Options
Membership : $20.00 CAD – yearly
Membership with donation : $50.00 CAD
Membership with donation : $100.00 CAD

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

“St. Barbe’s unique capacity to pass on his enthusiasm to others. . . Many foresters all over the world found their vocations as a result of hearing ‘The Man of the Trees’ speak. I certainly did, but his impact has been much wider than that. Through his global lecture tours, St. Barbe has made millions of people aware of the importance of trees and forests to our planet.” Allan Grainger

“The science of forestry arose from the recognition of a universal need. It embodies the spirit of service to mankind in attempting to provide a means of supplying forever a necessity of life and, in addition, ministering to man’s aesthetic tastes and recreational interests. Besides, the spiritual side of human nature needs the refreshing inspiration which comes from trees and woodlands. If a nation saves its trees, the trees will save the nation. And nations as well as tribes may be brought together in this great movement, based on the ideal of beautifying the world by the cultivation of one of God’s loveliest creatures – the tree.” ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker.

An Autumn Visit

Come visit the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, or the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

“The fate of an individual or a nation will always be determined by the degree of his or its harmony with the forces and laws of Nature and the universe. Man is not alone in the universe but is surrounded by sources of power, harmony and knowledge. The fullness of life depends upon man’s harmony with the totality of the natural cosmic laws. Our individual evolution is a job that has to be carried on day by day by each individual himself. It is a livelong task” Richard St. Barbe Baker

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The Poplar his branches richly green
Broad to the winds did wildly fling;—
The first in beauty and in power,
All bowed before the forest-king.

But ere its brilliant leaves were sere,
Or scattered by the Autumn wind,

Richard st. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, Autumn season

The voice merged into the buzz of autumn noises, and footsteps and other conversation

the wild geese went and came unchecked

Geese are Weed Destroyers they  are close grazers

Very valuable in ridding grasslands or fields of troublesome weeds.

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As the blear autumnal light burst forth

The Saskatchewan woodpecker drums

this musical rapping may be heard.

“He alternates his tapping with his stridulous call,

and the effect on a cool, autumn-like morning is very pleasing.”

 

“In that vast evergreen forest Nature works in perfect rhythm; roots digging deep or exploring nearer the surface for food and moisture. Imperceptibly Nature builds those mighty pillars with aisle innumerable, arches multiplex, in the cathedral of the forest.” Richard St. Barbe Baker

For more information:

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, SK, CA north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city.
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com

Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West Off Leash Recreation Area SW OLRA

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Tagged Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Twitter: St Barbe Baker

Please help protect / enhance your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

QR Code FOR PAYPAL DONATIONS to the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc.
Paypal
Payment Options
Membership : $20.00 CAD – yearly
Membership with donation : $50.00 CAD
Membership with donation : $100.00 CAD

 

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

Paragon of the Beholder

 

“I love to see, when leaves depart,
The clear anatomy arrive,
Winter, the paragon of art,
That kills all forms of life and feeling.
Save what is pure and will survive.”

Roy Campbell

And yet, now the leaves are coming back. The leaf roller and the tent caterpillar have gorged, the feast has ended with the last leaf. It is now the era for the trees to once again send out their leaves and green again.
It has been a better year for some insects. Still the bees are not hovering as much as yore. The butterflies have made a small comeback. Will the abundance of tent caterpillar and leaf roller be a sign of times to come, and hope that all insects may thrive again?

What a piece of work is a man,
how noble in reason,
how infinite in faculties,
in form and moving how express and admirable,
in action how like an angel,
in apprehension how like a god!
the beauty of the world,
the paragon of animals.
~William Shakespeare

And would you agree with Hamlet, is man the paragon of animals? The ornithologist may pass his life in one place, but he can never say “I have finished” and though they have traveled nought, they know the morrow may bring some new bird or new fact. The astute observation, ahd attention to detail this association with the birds adds to the joy of life! How is spring set apart from autumn, what new meanings comings and goings of the waterfowl, the songbirds, raptors and all give to the changing seasons; the very air is made eloquent by their calls and songs. Why should we not all be gladdened and “come at these enchantments”?” It is impossible for us not to love whatever is lovely, and of all living things birds were made most beautiful ~ says the bird watcher.
And yet~ recent researches and news stories have emphasized the practical importance to human society of entomological study, and insects will always be a source of delight to the lover of nature. Among the manifold operations of the myriad of living creatures few have more strongly impressed the casual observer or more deeply interested the thoughtful entymologist than the transformations of insects. Everyone is familiar with and can ramble on at length the main facts of such a life-story as that of a moth or butterfly.
And now~ have ever when out in nature, have you become aware of another, one who is taking time to behold mankind. When you are out truly there is a pace, and nearer to wildlife, they do not let others draw across that distance, yet, although their curiosity about humans was great. Have you been out, and seen that from the way they go circling round, stretching their necks to get a good view, and one might only feel and perhaps come to the conclusion that mankind perchance was of a different species of animal from those with which they were familiar.
The seasons come and go. Summer turns to fall. “What a piece of work is a ____________, the paragon of animals.” Is it truly that man is the paragon of animals? What do you say?  Is it truly in the eyes of the beholder?  Or is it what they focus upon? Or what they can see?

Will the entymolgist spy the metamorphic rock of the geologist?  Can the ornithologist spy the butterfly cocoon of the entymologist?  Will the artist behold the scene with the same eyes as the surveyor?  The seasons come and go.  Winter turns to spring.  Does the paragon of animals ever change?  “What a piece of work is a ____________, the paragon of animals.”

Nature’s beauty is a gift that cultivates appreciation and gratitude. Louie Schwartzberg Mwanner

For directions as to how to drive to “George Genereux” Urban Regional Park

For directions on how to drive to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

For more information:

Blairmore Sector Plan Report; planning for the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area,  George Genereux Urban Regional Park and West Swale and areas around them inside of Saskatoon city limits

P4G Saskatoon North Partnership for Growth The P4G consists of the Cities of Saskatoon, Warman, and Martensville, the Town of Osler and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park; planning for areas around the afforestation area and West Swale outside of Saskatoon city limits

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SW 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Where is the George Genereux Urban Regional Park (Afforestation Area)? with map

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Facebook Group Page: Users of the George Genereux Urban Regional Park

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West OLRA

Twitter: StBarbeBaker

Please help protect / enhance /commemorate your afforestation areas, please contact the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc. (e-mail)

Support the afforestation areas with your donation or membership ($20.00/year).  Please donate by paypal using the e-mail friendsafforestation AT gmail.com, or by using e-transfers  Please and thank you!  Your donation and membership is greatly appreciated.  Members e-mail your contact information to be kept up to date!

QR Code FOR PAYPAL DONATIONS to the Friends of the Saskatoon Afforestation Areas Inc.
Paypal
Payment Options
Membership : $20.00 CAD – yearly
Membership with donation : $50.00 CAD
Membership with donation : $100.00 CAD

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

 


See how nature – trees, flowers, grass – grows in silence; see the stars, the moon and the sun, how they move in silence . . . We need silence to be able to touch souls.
~Mother Teresa

“I believed that God has lent us the Earth. It belongs as much to those who come after us as to us, and it ill behooves us by anything we do or neglect, to deprive them of benefits which are in our power to bequeath.” Richard St. Barbe Baker

Stand firm. Grip hard.
Thrust upward to the skies.
Bend to the winds of heaven.
And learn tranquility.
~Richard St. Barbe Baker

 

Twitter: St Barbe Baker

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

We feel that our greatest victory remains to be won when man will realize his oneness with the trees, the creatures and with all living things, not ours to destroy, but to be handed on for the enjoyment of future generations. – Richard St. Barbe Baker.