Build a Prairie?

How can you “Build a Prairie?

Would you like the opportunity to play this game along with learning about plants and animals that compose the prairie ecosystem with the Field Guide to the Prairie?

How about taking a QuickTime VR movie to test drive your newly acquired skills, before you wander out on the prairie searching for plants and animals?

Or perhaps you are interested to know what exactly is a Master Naturalist?

Please check out the offerings by the Native Plant Society of Saskatchewan

“Anticipate Success. Let us heal the naked scars in the earth and restore her green mantle. Let us set our Earth family in order.”~Richard St. Barbe Baker

For more information:

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, SK, CA north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city.
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com

Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West Off Leash Recreation Area SW OLRA

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Tagged Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Twitter: St Barbe Baker

Contact the Meewasin Valley Authority in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The MVA has begun a Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund. If you wish to support the afforestation area with your donation, write a cheque to the “Meewasin Valley Authority Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund (MVA RSBBAA trust fund)”.  Post to MVA 402 Third Avenue South Saskatoon, SK S7K 3G5  Please and thank you!

Membership in the Saskatoon Nature Society  “supports nature conservation projects and [the society] is an active advocate for the preservation of plant and animal habitats”.

Please contemplate joining the SOS Elms coalition ~ an active group interested in forest management~ or make a donation to “Save our Saskatchewan” [SOS] Elms ~ leave a message to support the afforestation area  😉

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

“It is with a spirit of reverence that I approach God’s Creation, this beautiful Earth. The ancients believe that the Earth was a sentient being and felt the behavior of mankind upon it. As we have no proof to the contrary, it might be as well for responsible perople to accept this point of view and behave accordingly.”~Richard St. Barbe Baker

 

Advertisements

Relief from Pain

Oct 16 World Food Day

“Some may have to suffer mental or physical pain before they are able to accept the teaching they are in most need of.  I have noticed that this applies to vegetarianism.  When people have made themselves very sick living on unnatural foods and maybe have spent fortunes on specialists and submitted themselves to serious surgical operations and in the end have given up and told there is no hope of recover, then and only then, as a last resort, you will find people experimenting with the vegetarian way of life.”~My Health – My Wealth Richard St. Barbe Baker.

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

“It seems difficult for people to accept the fact that it is quite unnecessary to kill for food. Yet beef and mutton have been so long regarded as providing the perfect protein on the grounds that it is claimed that they contain all the amino acids that the body requires for health.  But surely one of the values of any food lies in its power to neutralize the acid waste left in the system by other foods. Meat is not only acid-forming, but it is deficient in calcium, iron, sodium and Vitamins C and D.  The small quantities of Vitamins A and D found it it are usually destroyed by cooking.  “~My Health – My Wealth Richard St. Barbe Baker.

Shepherdia argentea, commonly called silver buffaloberry bull berry, or thorny buffaloberry. CC-BY-SA-3.0 credit Julia Adamson
Shepherdia argentea, commonly called silver buffaloberry bull berry, or thorny buffaloberry. CC-BY-SA-3.0 credit Julia Adamson

Persons on strictly vegetarian diets have been remarkable for longevity.  “~My Health – My Wealth Richard St. Barbe Baker.

June_7795

“We cannot remove tree cover without running the risk of losing the blessing of the water cycle. We cannot denude the earth’s surface without creating the desiccation of sand the dust dunes. We cannot permit animals to devour whatever little is left of green growth. Excessive grazing of cattle, sheep and goats is as damaging to the land as a wholesale felling of trees…” from Desert Challenge Richard St. Barbe Baker.

Caragana Flower Blooom FRichard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area. Saskatoon, SK CA
Caragana Flower Bloom (edible) Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area. Saskatoon, SK CA

“They’re teaching about The Pyramid of Life in the schools today. There is the ground producing all the soil bacteria, which is in the top few inches. That grows the grass, and a a lamb comes along and eats ten pounds of grass, and that makes one lamb, and then a tiger comes along and eats ten pounds of lamb, and that makes one pound of tiger. We have too many tigers. The Pyramid of Life is upset, and one of the things we must do is to turn from an animal economy to a silvan economy. We’ve got to have tree crops, instead of wasting all this land for raising beef and bringing money to the beef barons, who are proud to call themselves beef barons. It takes eighteen times more land to feed people on beef than it does on nuts and fruit. Eighteen times more land. When half the human family today are dying from starvation. I don’t feel justified in making these demands on the earth. I, myself have been a lifelong vegetarian. ” Richard St. Barbe Baker. State of the Forests. Probe Post Canada’s Environmental Magazine, October 1982. Richard Beharriell interview with Richard St. Barbe Baker in 1980.

For more information:
Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Facebook: StBarbeBaker
Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Facebook: South West OLRA
Contact the Meewasin Valley Authority in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The MVA has begun a Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund. If you wish to support the afforestation area with your donation, write a cheque to the “Meewasin Valley Authority Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund (MVA RSBBAA trust fund)”. Please and thank you!
Twitter: StBarbeBaker
Please contemplate joining the SOS Elms coalition or make a donation to SOS Elms ~ leave a message to support the afforestation area  😉

‘I will have nothing to do with this destruction of life, I will play no part in this devastation of the land, I am determined to live and …today it is the duty of every thinking being to live, and to serve not only his own day and generation, but also generations unborn by helping to restore and maintain the green glory of the forests of the earth. Richard St. Barbe Baker
Richard St. Barbe Baker

Help Me!

St. Barbe was eighty-six when I first met him.  …

“Help Me” he said simply.

Help me!  He took on the struggle and greatness of the planet itself in that moment.~Gaea Laughingbird  Weiss. New Age. November 1982

Have you ever taken a moment to delve into the heart and soul of Richard St. Barbe Baker?  Spend a moment and read through his personal correspondence,  many and several articles about St. Barbe, tributes and memorials upon his passing.  These and more can all be uncovered at the University of Saskatchewan, University Archives & Special Collections, Richard St. Barbe Baker fonds, MG 71

“Trees are sensitive to thought vibrations and sometimes visibly recoil from people who do not love them. Many believe that should a tree have to be felled or even heavily pruned, there should  be an understanding wit the tree deva. ~Richard St. Barbe Baker in Trees for Health and Longevity.  Forward by Kenneth T.H. Moore M.B., B.S., F.R.C.S.

Richard St. Barbe Baker was responsible for planting some 26 trillion trees during his lifetime.  Organizations, and people committed to the legacy of St. Barbe continue his life mission even today.

“It took a long time to find a suitable site for such an important memorial.” The Richard St. Barbe Baker Memorial Wood, Charnwood Borough.

Richard St. Barbe Baker OBE, Hon. LL.D. F.I.A.L., For.Dip.Cantab., ACF (9 October 1889 – 9 June 1982) received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws on 6 November 1971 from the University of Saskatchewan. This honour was followed by an appointment bestowed by Queen Elizabeth II as Officer of the Order of the British Empire OBE in 1978.

“[Richard St. Barbe Baker said,] I am going to Saskatchewan where I began as a young man, studying forestry at the university, homesteading and planting the first trees.  I don’t know if I will go beyond there.”  He paused and looked at me in that direct way he had, reading my mind, for I had been wishing to speak with him of death.  “Is there anything you wish to say to me in my condition? he asked.

“Do you mean as you are about to die? I [Gaea Laughingbird  Weiss] responded.

“Yes,” he said…..

When I left, he said, “Pray for me,” and I felt waves of love move through me, as if from lifetimes of friendship.”

“~Gaea Laughingbird  Weiss. New Age. November 1982

Why did St. Barbe, a world wide traveler, choose Saskatoon, specifically with due thought, care and attention, as his resting place?  Why did St. Barbe honour Saskatoon with his presence in June 1982 and ever after?  How does Saskatoon take the time to repay this great and terrific honour?  It is truly humbling to learn about St. Barbe and to always feel a great privilege to walk in the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area named out of respect in his memory.

“Many scientists have a spiritual perspective that remains hidden from public view until their later years or their death. Not so St. Barbe, who integrated rigorous scientific understanding of trees, and the place of forests in planetary ecology, with a profoundly spiritual understanding.” Gaea Laughingbird  Weiss. New Age. November 1982

Paul Hanley, a personal friend of St. Barbe, a freelance writer, and environmentalist,  has written a biography on this internationally known forester, Richard St. Barbe Baker.  Contact Paul Hanley for more information about this book.

Richard St. Barbe Baker photograph courtesy University of Saskatchewan, University Archives & Special Collections, Richard St. Barbe Baker fonds, MG 71

For more information:

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, SK, CA north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city.
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com

Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map

Facebook: StBarbeBaker

Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Facebook: South West Off Leash Recreation Area SW OLRA

Pinterest richardstbarbeb

Tagged Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area

Twitter: St Barbe Baker

Contact the Meewasin Valley Authority in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The MVA has begun a Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund. If you wish to support the afforestation area with your donation, write a cheque to the “Meewasin Valley Authority Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund (MVA RSBBAA trust fund)”.  Post to MVA 402 Third Avenue South Saskatoon, SK S7K 3G5  Please and thank you!

Membership in the Saskatoon Nature Society  “supports nature conservation projects and [the society] is an active advocate for the preservation of plant and animal habitats”.

Please contemplate joining the SOS Elms coalition ~ an active group interested in forest management~ or make a donation to “Save our Saskatchewan” [SOS] Elms ~ leave a message to support the afforestation area  😉

1./ Learn.

2./ Experience

3./ Do Something: ***

Mother Nature’s Son

“Mother Nature’s Son”

Song written by John Lennon born October 9, 1940,

Richard St. Barbe Baker born October 9, 1889

Born a poor young country boy, Mother Nature’s son
All day long I’m sitting singing songs for everyone

Sit beside a mountain stream, see her waters rise
Listen to the pretty sound of music as she flies

Doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo
Doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo
Doo doo doo

Find me in my field of grass, Mother Nature’s son
Swaying daisies sing a lazy song beneath the sun

Doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo
Doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo
Doo doo doo doo doo doo
Yeah yeah yeah

Mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
Mm mm mm, ooh ooh ooh
Mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
Mm mm mm mm, wah wah wah

Wah, Mother Nature’s son

For more information:
Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Facebook: StBarbeBaker
Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Facebook: South West OLRA
Contact the Meewasin Valley Authority in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The MVA has begun a Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund. If you wish to support the afforestation area with your donation, write a cheque to the “Meewasin Valley Authority Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund (MVA RSBBAA trust fund)”. Please and thank you!
Twitter: StBarbeBaker
Please contemplate joining the SOS Elms coalition or make a donation to SOS Elms ~ leave a message to support the afforestation area  😉

 

Child Of Nature

Child Of Nature

song written by John Lennon who was born on 9 October 1940.

Richard St. Barbe Baker, was also born 9 October 1889.

On the road to Rishikesh
I was dreaming more or less
And the dream I had was true
Yes, the dream I had was true

I’m just a child of nature
I don’t need much to set me free
I’m just child of nature
I’m one of nature’s children

Sunlight shining in your eyes
As I face the desert skies
And my thoughts return to home
Yes, my thoughts return to home

I’m just a child of nature
I don’t need much to set me free
I’m just a child of nature
I’m one of nature’s children

Underneath the mountain ranges
Where the wind that never changes
Touch the windows of my soul
Touch the windows of my soul

I’m just a child of nature
I don’t need much to set me free
I’m just a child of nature
I’m one of nature’s children

For more information:

Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, SK, CA north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city.
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Off Leash Dog Park Valley Road Saskatoon!
Facebook: StBarbeBaker
Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Facebook: South West OLRA
If you wish to support the afforestation area with your donation, write a cheque please to the “Meewasin Valley Authority Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund” (MVA RSBBAA trust fund) and mail it to Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area c/o Meewasin Valley Authority, 402 Third Ave S, Saskatoon SK S7K 3G5. Thank you kindly!
Twitter: St Barbe Baker
Pinterest richardstbarbeb

“Clearly, human pressure is exerting a sudden and cataclysmic impact on much of this province, if viewed in the time-frame of evolution and geology to which the rhythms of ecosystems are tuned. The groundswell of environmental concern taking shape among us, its citizens, results in public pressure for new and stronger strictures on human exploitation and desecration…Such action is needed as the embodiment of an ethical responsibility to the land and living things, for our own well-being as well as for that of all other species.” Theberge, 1989. P.376

 

 

Happy Birthday!

Dr Richard St. Barbe Baker, O.B.E., Hon. L.L.D. (Sask), F.A.I.L., For, Dip. Cantab. (St. Barbe) 9 October 1889 – 9 June 1982.

Today is St. Barbe’s birthday! It is the 129th anniversary of St. Barbe’s birthdate.  October 9 means he is a Libra.  What is known about persons who are born under this horoscope sign?

Photo of Richard St. Barbe Baker Courtesy: University of Saskatchewan, University Archives & Special Collections,
Photo of Richard St. Barbe Baker Courtesy: University of Saskatchewan, University Archives & Special Collections,

Song by
T. S. Eliot, born September 26, 1888 – 1965 [a fellow Libran]

When we came home across the hill
No leaves were fallen from the trees;
The gentle fingers of the breeze
Had torn no quivering cobweb down.

The hedgerow bloomed with flowers still,
No withered petals lay beneath;
But the wild roses in your wreath
Were faded, and the leaves were brown.

 

Photo of Richard St. Barbe Baker Courtesy: University of Saskatchewan, University Archives & Special Collections,
Photo of Richard St. Barbe Baker Courtesy: University of Saskatchewan, University Archives & Special Collections,

The Curious Events Day is celebrated annually on October 9.

Fire Prevention day is commemorated every year on October 9.

Fire Prevention Day October 9
Fire Prevention Day October 9

Please post your curious event in the comments section.

For more information:
Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Facebook: StBarbeBaker
Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Facebook: South West OLRA
Contact the Meewasin Valley Authority in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The MVA has begun a Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund. If you wish to support the afforestation area with your donation, write a cheque to the “Meewasin Valley Authority Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund (MVA RSBBAA trust fund)”. Please and thank you!
Twitter: StBarbeBaker
Please contemplate joining the SOS Elms coalition or make a donation to SOS Elms ~ leave a message to support the afforestation area  😉

 

Men of the Trees

Are you a Watu Wa Miti?

Natural Resources Canada has developed a Tree App just for you!

The My Tree app is a free download developed by the Canadian Forest Service, which will help you, as a property owner, to decide which trees will grow best in your region of Canada.  “The My Tree app now includes more than 180 native and introduced tree species and their colour-coded hardiness zones.”

 

You can download My Tree from the Government of Canada’s Mobile Centre for any operating system, or directly from the app stores for Blackberry, iOS (iPhone/iPod Touch and iPad), and Android.

Coincidentally, to go alongside the My Tree App download, you can request a free tree from the City of Saskatoon! as well, you can request a free seedling from SaskPower!

Are you able to also take the Watu wa Miti, or “Men of the Trees” oath? These forest guides, or forest scouts promised  that they would protect the native forest, plant ten native trees each year, and take care of trees everywhere.  It is recognized that Women are at the heart of the Men of the Trees, and Richard St. Barbe Baker “found friendship and guidance from some key female collaborators and colleagues…  The International Tree Foundation empowers women to be bold for change.”

Native trees for the prairies include the following (as well as numerous shrubs and bushes):

  • balsam poplar
  • trembling aspen
  • green ash
  • lodgepole pine
  • white spruce source

“Of the earth’s thirty billion acres, already nine billion acres are desert. And if a man loses a third of his skin, he dies; plastic surgeons say “He’s had it.” And if a tree loses one-third of its bark, it dies. And if the earth loses one-third of its green mantle of trees, it will die. The water table will sink beyond recall and life on this planet will become impossible. It’s being skinned alive today. . .” Richard St. Barbe Baker

It is wonderful when the municipal or city government plants 1/3 of its acres to trees, it is remarkable when a provincial government department steps up to the plate and commits to planting trees around its province, and it is phenomenal when the country takes a stand to afforest their nation. Did you know Ontario has committed to planting 50 million trees in a densely populated province?  “Environment Canada recommends that a minimum of 30% forest cover and 10% forest interior habitat is needed to sustain the natural diversity of both plants and animals in a watershed, and that 75% of a stream length be naturally vegetated a minimum of 30 metres wide on both sides for these ecological features to perform their function.”Source  “In addition to enhancing the aesthetics of a property, the presence of trees and bushes provide a variety of benefits. For example, they clean the air and produce oxygen, they help stabilize the soil and prevent erosion, and they provide habitat and food for wildlife. “Environment, Energy and Transportation Statistics Division

That being said, what are you doing individually?  Have you planted 1/3 of your property to trees?  Have you requested that your landlord sets 1/3 of your condominium or apartment property as trees?  If not, why not?

Honour the International Tree Foundation’s forest scouts called Watu wa Miti, or Men of the Trees, and tale action.  This autumn, it is not too late to plant trees.  The ground is not frozen!  According to Trees Canada, “Deciduous trees can be planted … in the fall, from leaf-fall until freeze-up.  Evergreens can be planted.. in the fall, from about the first week of August to the end of October”.  “The fact is that for many plants fall it is actually THE BEST time to plant! It’s also a great time to get deals on perennials, trees, and shrubs too!”Source

Download the My Tree App, read Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s resource for planting new trees and shrubs and today request a free tree from the City of Saskatoon or request a free seedling from SaskPower!

For more information:
Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area is located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada north of Cedar Villa Road, within city limits, in the furthest south west area of the city. 52° 06′ 106° 45′
Addresses:
Part SE 23-36-6 – Afforestation Area – 241 Township Road 362-A
Part SE 23-36-6 – SW Off-Leash Recreation Area (Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area ) – 355 Township Road 362-A
S ½ 22-36-6 Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area (West of SW OLRA) – 467 Township Road 362-A
NE 21-36-6 “George Genereux” Afforestation Area – 133 Range Road 3063
Wikimapia Map: type in Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Google Maps South West Off Leash area location pin at parking lot
Web page: https://stbarbebaker.wordpress.com
Where is the Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area? with map
Facebook: StBarbeBaker
Facebook group page : Users of the St Barbe Baker Afforestation Area
Facebook: South West OLRA
Contact the Meewasin Valley Authority in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The MVA has begun a Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund. If you wish to support the afforestation area with your donation, write a cheque to the “Meewasin Valley Authority Richard St. Barbe Baker Afforestation Area trust fund (MVA RSBBAA trust fund)”. Please and thank you!
Twitter: StBarbeBaker
Please contemplate joining the SOS Elms coalition or make a donation to SOS Elms ~ leave a message to support the afforestation area  😉

“To be in a better position to help them I studied their language [Kenya’s Kikuyu people], their folklore and tribal customs, and was initiated into their secret society, an ancient institution which safeguarded the history of the past which was handed down by word of mouth through its members.

Soon I came to understand and love these people and wanted to be of service to them. They called me “Bwana M‘Kubwa,” meaning “Big Master,” but I said, “I am your M‘tumwe” (slave).” Richard St. Barbe Baker